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Full text of "The fruit grower's instructor, being a practical treatise on the cultivation and treatment of fruit trees: to which is added, full instructions for forcing, with a list and descriptive account of all the best fruits cultivated in Great Britain; also directions for hothouse building, with the most approved modes of heating by fire and hot water ... The whole written from practice"

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 




FROM THE LIBRARY OF 
COUNT EGON CAESAR CORTI 




THE 

FRUIT GROWER'S INSTRUCTOR; 

OR, 

a practical 

ON THE 

CULTIVATION AND TREATMENT 

OF 

FRUIT TREES: 

CONTAINING 
A DESCRIPTION OF ALL THE BEST FRUITS NOW IN CULTIVATION, 

A FULL DESCRIPTION OF 

THE APPLE FLY, 

COMMONLY CALLED 

The American Blight, which causes the Canker in Apple Trees, 
WITH AN EFFECTUAL REMEDY : 

IT WILL BE FOUND EQUALLY USEFUL TO THE GENTLEMAN, THE 

GARDENER, OR THE NURSERYMAN ; AND PARTICULARLY 

ADAPTED FOR THOSE WHO CULTIVATE THEIR 

OWN GARDENS. 



THE WHOLE WRITTEN ENTIRELY PROM PUACIICE, 

BY G. BLISS. 

LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR J, RIDGWAY, 169, PICCADILLY. 
1825. 



LONDON: 
SHACKELL AND ARROWSMITH, JOHNSON'S-COURT, FLEKT-STRBBT. 



PREFACE. 



IT is necessary to prefix a Preface to a work 
of this nature, to give the reader such informa- 
tion as may be useful during its perusal ; to 
explain and point out the nature and arrange- 
ments of its principal parts, likewise to duly 
prepare him for what the work contains, 
which is of great advantage both to the author 
and himself. 

It often happens in works of this sort, as 
well as in many others, that quotations are 
made from other authors in order to sanction 
and gloss over their own productions, some- 
times of praise, sometimes of ridicule, just as 
it may suit the passage or parts alluded to ; 
but by cautioning my readers against inex- 
perienced authors, I do not intend throughout 

this publication to call any one name in par- 
a2 






IV PREFACE. 

ticular in question, as, perhaps, much which 
has been written has been to the best of the 
writer's judgment. But when a person is 
about to become a fruit grower, (particularly 
on an extensive scale,) he ought to be cautious 
how he follows the advice of inexperienced or 
theoretical persons ; for I have read many 
works professing to treat on horticultural and 
gardening subjects, which are more calculated 
to amuse than enlighten : there is a difference 
between rules of treatment by which certain 
effects can be insured, and hereditary customs^ 
(if I may use the term) by which advantages 
may accidentally follow ; yet the sticklers, nay 
almost worshippers, of these latter, will not 
hesitate to attack the experienced man, be- 
cause, in one instance out of a hundred, he 
has -happened to succeed contrary to the 
advice of the former. 

But the treatment of fruit trees altogether 
requires k>ng practice and close application ; 
and I intend in this small treatise to explain 
so clearly the necessary treatment of fruit 



PREFACE. V 

trees (particularly apples,) that every one who 
is able to read it may understand. I might 
fill three volumes twice the size, and not 
convey more practical information to the 
reader than will be found in this small book ; 
and those who follow its instructions need not 
fear success, as I do not intend to speak of any 
thing which I have not fully proved. This work 
will be confined to that profitable and beautiful 
part of horticulture, the most leading fruits cul- 
tivated in this country ; among which I shall 
treat largely on apples, they being of all fruits 
the most profitable and useful, and I may add 
the most beautiful, for the bloom in Spring is 
extremely handsome, and the fruit when ripe 
the same. Indeed it may be denominated with 
strict propriety, a truly British fruit, being the 
most staple commodity of the kind grown in 
England ; and unlike any other, may be ob- 
tained in perfection during any month through- 
out the year. 

It is impossible to write a book that will apply 
to every particular case, and as this is not in- 



PREFACE. 



tended as an introduction to Botany, or a 
Gardener's Dictionary, I think it would be 
wrong to confuse the reader with more than 
is stated in the_title page. I am certain there 
s great room for improvement in England, 
were the soils and situations properly studied, 
after the following treatise. I should not 
speak so confidently, were it not from a long 
series of practice ; for when I say there are 
thousands, and tens of thousands of apple 
and other trees, in different parts of England, 
which have been grafted and managed by 
my own hands till they have been sent to 
their respective places of destination, toge- 
ther with the opportunity of fruiting and prov- 
ing all the best sorts now in cultivation the 
confidence in attempting this work will not 
be surprising ; and likewise the discovery of 
the remedy for the canker, which I have 
made my study for some years, and which 
I am sorry to say, I have no doubt affects, 
more or less, above one half of the trees 
which have gone from me as well as others ; 
and the whole of which were threatened with 



PREFACE. Vli 

a premature end, had not the real cause and 
remedy been discovered. 

In my history of the American Blight and 
the remedy, I shall confine myself to what I 
can speak to with certainty, and it is absolutely 
necessary the strongest measures' should be 
resorted to, to prevent the threatened destruc- 
tion of our apple trees. For some years past, 
the markets of the metropolis have been sup- 
plied from Christmas till Summer, chiefly 
with foreign apples ; a season, when the price 
would be of such great service to our own 
farmers ; the reason of which proceeds from 
a conviction, that when the trees ought to be 
coming into bearing, to afford a remuneration 
for the trouble and expense consequent in 
rearing them, they are beginning to receive the 
canker, and notwithstanding a number of years 
may elapse before they become completely 
affected, still the fruit they produce, neither 
keeping so well, nor being so fine in flavour 
and appearance, as that of those which are 
healthy, render them little better than an 



Vlll PREFACE, 

incumbrance to the ground ; this it is which 
prevents a perseverance in their cultivation. 

Those who have had an opportunity of wit- 
nessing the above fact, which is now unfortu- 
nately but too generally felt, and which deters 
them from planting, I have the pleasure to 
state from experience, need no longer let it 
influence them ; for, by following the rules 
laid down in this publication they may rely on 
success. It may be said, to speak so con- 
fidently argues too much self-opinion ; but I 
think when a man is really in possession of 
a fact, to assume ignorance is equally con- 
temptible, with him who is too opiniated ; 
both are despicable in the eyes of men of 
sound understanding ; it is not because I have 
written what my practice and judgment have 
furnished me with, that I wish every one to 
follow it ; on the contrary, knowing there are 
more methods than one, though not equally 
effective, I should wish those who are con- 
tent with the success attendant on their own, 
most decidedly to follow it, until by re- 



PREFACE. IX 

peated failures they may be induced to try 
mine, and rinding its infallibility become con- 
verted ; and as truth and independence ought 
to guide the pen of every historical author, I 
shall bear that in mind throughout this publi- 
cation. 

In addition to the treatise on apples, bud- 
ding, and the various modes of grafting trees, 
with interesting observations thereon, I have 
given a list of all the leading fruits now in 
cultivation, both alphabetical and explanatory, 
which will be found very useful to those who 
are unacquainted with them. Also a descrip- 
tion of several other insects, besides the apple 
fly, which are considered injurious to fruit 
trees. 

The work is divided into chapters and para- 
graphs, each paragraph beginning and ending 
with the subject it relates to, without being 
confused with extraneous matter ; and as the 
index refers to paragraphs as well as pages, 



X PREFACE. 

any subject may be found with the greatest 
facility. 1 

The Canker which first drew my pen to 
write these sheets, I hope will meet with its 
due share of attention, as the salvation of our 
apple trees is not only of individual considera- 
tion, but of great national importance. 



INDEX. 



Page. Paragraph 

ON the Propagation of Apples . . 1 ' 1 

Quartering Stocks . . . .4 2 

Grafting . . . . .63 

Tying Grafts . . . .11 4 

Management of Grafts ' . . .13 5 

Snagging of Grafts . . .14 6 

Pruning and Management while in the Nursery . 15 

Observations before the general cultivation of Apples 20 8 

Cultivation of Dwarf Apples . .21 9 

Directions for planting in bad soil . .22 '10 

Cultivation of Standard Apples . .23 11 

Pruning of Dwarf Apples . . . 25 12 

Pruning of Standard Apples . . 28 13 

Pruning of Trained Apples, with Observations .31 14 

Budding of Apples . . . . 32 15 

Description of Budding , . .33 16 

Untying Buds . . . .36 17 

Heading down Stocks which are Budded . .36 18 

Tying and Sucker ing of Buds . .37 19 

Observations before the Explanatory List of Sorts .37 20 

EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 

Ribston Pippin . . . .38 21 

Court of Wyck Pippin . . . 38 22 

Scarlet Nonpareil . . . 38 23 

Old Nonpareil . . . 39 24 

Downton Pippin . . . . 39 25 

Sykehouse Apple . . . 39 26 

Yellow Tngestry Pippin . . . 39 27 



INDEX. 

Pagp. Paragraph, 

Hick's Fancy . . . . 39 28 

Old Golden Pippin . . . 40 29 

Franklin's Golden Pippin . . . 40 SO 

Early Oslin Apple . . . 40 31 

Scarlet Pearmain . . . .41 32 

Royal Pearmain . . 41 33 

Margaret Apple . . . .41 34 

Duchess of Oldenburgh . . .41 35 

Golden Reinet . . . .41 36 

King of the Pippins . . . 42 37 

Wellington Apple . . 42 38 

Kerry Pippin . . . . 42 39 

Wheeler's Russet . . , 42 40 

Powell's Russet . . . 42 41 

Devonshire Whitesour . . . 43 42 

Margell . . . . 43 43 

Cristy's Pippin . . . 43 44 

Beauty of Kent . . . . 43 45 

Emperor Alexander * .43 4 

Keswick Codlin . . . 44 41 

Luccomb's Seeding . . , 44 48 

Northern Greening . . . 44 49 

Scarlet Admirable . . .44 50 

Royal Russet . . . . 45 51 

Cockagee . . . . 45 52 

Shepherd's Newington . . . 45 53 

Striped Holland Pippin . . . 45 54 

Dutch Codlin . . . 45 55 

Kentish Codlin . . . .45 56 

Norfolk Storing . . , . 45 57 

Norfolk Beefin . . . . 46 58 

Lemon Pippin . . . .46 59 

Loan's Pearmain . . . . 46 60 

Hawthorne Dean . . . .46 61 

Hertfordshire Pearmain . . . 47 62 

Kirke's Lord Nelson . . . 47 63 

French Crab 48 64 



INDKX. 

Page. Paragraph, 

Nonsuch . . . . 48 65 

Norfolk Paradise . . .48 66 

Woodstock Pippin . . .48 67 

Hank's Codlin . . 49 68 

Pile's Russet . . . . 49 69 

Braddick's Nonpareil . . . 49 70 

Observations . . . . 50 71 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF APPLES NOW GENERALLY 

CULTIVATED . .51 72 

Cider Apples ... 53 73 

Apples recommended for small Gardens . 56 74 

The mode of producing new kinds of Apples . 56 75 

Observations on the different modes of Grafting . 59 76 



INDEX TO THE CHAPTER ON CANKER. 

Introduction . . , . 64 77 

The manner the Insect operates on the Trees while 

in the Nursery . . . 65 78 

Description of the first change of the Insect .67 79 

First discovery of the Insect in another stage . 68 80 
Particular Observations made in 1822, of the Insect 

which causes the Canker becoming winged, &c. 68 81 
First discovery of the Insect laying its eggs, with 

other remarks . . . . 71 82 

Further description of the large Fly in its perfect 

state . > . . 72 83 

Where the Flies take shelter in wet weather . 72 84 

The manner the Insect operates on the Roots in 

Winter . . . . 73 85 

Description of the first change of the very small 

Insect alluded to in Paragraph the third, which 

after causes the Canker, and becomes the large 

Fly ... n 74 86 

Second change of the Insect . .74 87 



INDEX. 

Page. Para;rapli. 

The third change of the Insect, and its becoming 

winged . . . 75 88 

Further Observations . . . 76 89 

Author's Remarks respecting other Insects .76 90 
Description of the small Brown Chafer, which is so 

injurious in Nurseries, &c. . . .77 91 
Remarks on Butterflies . . .. .77 92 
Description of the Silk Worm . . 78 93 
The reason forintroducing the above Insects .78 94 
The reason for bringing out the Composition to pre- 
vent the Canker . . . 79 95 
The London Agents for the Sale of the Composition 80 96 
Form of Label pasted on each Packet . .81 97 
Caution not to use improper things . .81 98 
The difficulty in convincing, &c. , - . 82 99 
Some useful Remarks . . - 83 100 
To prevent the Canker in the Main Stem, &c. the 

most necessary . . . . 84 101 
How to apply the Composition to Young Standard 

Trees . . . . 85 102 
How to apply the Composition to Old Standard 

Cankered Trees . . .87 103 

Trees past recovery recommended to be destroyed 89 104 
How to apply the Chelsea Apple Powder to Dwarf 

Trees, with further proofs of its utility .90 105 

What a>ay relate to Trained Trees, &c. .91 106 " 

Observations , . . . 92 107 

INDEX TO CHAPTER III. 

PEARS. 

Introductory Remarks . . . 96 108 

Explanatory List of Pears . . 98 109 

Alphabetical List of Pears . . .102 110 

PLUMS. 

Remarks . . / 103 111 

Explanatory List of Plums . . . 104 112 

Alphabetical List of Plums . 107 113 



INDEX, 

Page* Paragraph* 
CHERRIES. 

Useful Observations . . .18 114 

Explanatory List of Cherries . . .109 115 

Alphabetical List of Cherries . .112 11G 

APRICOTS. 

Remarks on the Stocks for Budding, &c. . 1 12 111 ' 

Explanatory List of Apricots . .113 118 

Alphabetical List of Apricots k .115 119 

PEACHES. 

Remarks ... . 115 120 

Explanatory List of Peaches . . .117 121 

Alphabetical List of Peaches . .121 122 

NECTARINES. 

Explanatory List of Nectarines > . 122 123 

Alphabetical List of Nectarines . .124 124 

GRAPE VINES. 

Remarks . > . .124 125 

Explanatory List of Grapes . . . 125 126 

Alphabetical List of Grapes . k .130 127 

FIGS. 

Explanatory List of Figs . ' . f .131 128 

Alphabetical List of Figs . . . 133 129 

Of Chestnuts . . .133 130 

Of Barberries . . . 133 131 

Of Quinces . , . .133 132 

Of Walnuts . . . .134 133 

Of Filberts and Nuts . . 134 134 

Of Raspberries . . .134 135 

Of Strawberries . . . .134 136 

Of Currants . . . . 135 137 

Of Gooseberries . 135 138 



THE 



FRUIT GROWER'S INSTRUCTOR. 



CHAPTER I. 



On the Propagation, Cultivation) Pruning, and General 
Management of Apple Trees. 

ON THE PROPAGATION OF APPLES. 

Par. 1 . The propagation of apples is, of all 
other fruits, the most easy ; and yet no tree 
requires more care and good management in 
its general cultivation. 

The reason why it is more easy is, because 
the grafts are, if put on in the proper season, 
and made to touch the bark, almost sure to 
grow; but although so easy it is generally 
attended with more dangerous consequences 
than any other, tree, if the grafting part is 



2 THE PROPAGATION OF APPLES. 

not properly attended to, which will be here- 
after explained. 

The general method of propagating apples, 
is by grafting on the Crab stock, which stock 
should be raised from the seed of the true 
Crab; the seed may be procured from those 
who make verjuice ; when a large quantity is 
wanted it is the best way, as you can generally 
depend on having seed from the true Crab ; 
but this is not the case with many stock 
growers, for they often sow the seed from 
apples made into cider, which will produce 
various sorts of stocks; some will grow large 
and vigorous, others of so weak a nature that 
they will scarcely ever make a standard tree. 

f e 

The best method is to wash the seed from 
the pulp, and let it get rather dry, for its own 
pulp is very apt to rot the pip ; mix it with 
some light mould or sand, not too damp; then, 
the following February, or beginning of March, 
as the weather may suit, you may sow your 
seed in beds or in drills ; but beds are best, 
for when you have taken your mould out the 
proper depth, which should be about an inch, 
you will be able, when you have sown your 
seed, to cover it all over alike, which you can- 
not do so correctly in drills : the beds should be 



THE PROPAGATION OF APPLES. 3 

about four feet wide, leaving two feet between 
each bed for a path, to be able to walk between 
them to weed and keep the beds clean, as that 
is most material to all young seedlings ; you 
take the mould out about one inch deep with 
the spade, and put it into the path or alley ; 
make the bottom of your beds perfectly level, 
then sow your seed (just as it is mixt, with 
mould or sand) as near as you can judge about 
one inch apart all over the ground, which will 
be much better for the plants than if you sow 
them thicker, for Crabs when drawn up very 
weak, seldom do much good after : then take 
the mould you have thrown into the alleys, and 
sift it over them about one inch ; but if the 
ground is strong and binding, about three 
quarters of an inch will be quite enough. 

The seed will then remain in the ground till 
the following spring, before you get your ge- 
neral crop, although some few may come up 
the first year ; during that period, the beds 
should be kept carefully clean, while the weeds 
are in a young state, in order that the mould 
may not be disturbed so deep as the seed. 

The following Autumn you may take up the 
seedlings, having had one summer's growth, and 
transplant them into beds, putting them about 

B2 



4 QUARTERING STOCKS FOR GRAFTING. 

one foot row from row, and about three inches 
apart in the rows : let them stand two years, 
then they will be strong to plant out into quar- 
ters for grafting, or if the plants are not too 
close together in the seed beds, they may stand 
two years, and the greater part will be then 
strong enough to plant out for grafting, with- 
out being first bedded. 

QUARTERING STOCKS FOR GRAFTING. 

Par. 2. Where you quarter or plant out 
Crab stocks, being intended to grow strong 
to throw up standard trees, it is necessary to 
select a piece of deep loamy soil, which should 
be well trenched two spades deep ; this should 
be done as early in autumn as you can, in 
order to get your stocks planted early in No- 
vember, then they will immediately draw root, 
which will make a considerable deal of differ- 
ence in their growth the following summer, for 
if you do not get them planted till late in De- 
cember, the coldness of the ground, even if 
the weather is mild, will prevent them draw- 
ing fresh root, and they would be better to re- 
main in the beds till February, when they 
would soon begin to vegetate, for when the 
stocks remain in the ground for some months, 
after being removed and all vegetation ceased, 



QUARTERING STOCKS FOR GRAFTING. 5 

the small fibres are very apt to rot, and the 
large roots get in a mildewed stagnant state, 
which I have proved has been so far injurious 
to the plants, that it often takes them the fol- 
lowing summer to recover themselves, while 
those planted in February will make a good 
growth. 

If your ground is very poor it will be neces- 
sary to give it plenty of good rotten manure, 
to make them throw up standards quick. 

The distance for quartering out the stocks 
for grafting should be two feet six inches row 
from row, and about ten inches apart in the 
rows. Some will give two feet ten inches, or 
three feet row from row, but that I think un- 
necessary, as two feet six inches is quite suf- 
ficient to get between them for all purposes, 
and quite room enough for them to grow so 
long as they ought to remain in the nursery. 

When you plant your stocks you should 
prune the roots, cutting the strong roots 
shorter, and take away as many of the super- 
fluous fibres as you can ; trim up the stock 
clean at the bottom, but be sure to leave buds 
to break from the top, then cut off the top, 
leaving the stock long enough to be about six- 



6 GRAFTING. 

teen or eighteen inches out of the ground when 
planted ; the stocks should remain two years, 
and then they will be in good order for graft- 
ing, during which time they will require very 
little care or trouble, more than digging be- 
tween and keeping them clean from weeds. 

GRAFTING. 

Par. 3. We next come to grafting-, 
which is one of the most important branches 
in propagation, particularly of the apple, it 
being so subject to the canker, and so apt to be 
injured where the graft is put on the stock, 
which, if it once takes place, is almost sure to 
destroy the tree. This will be fully explained 
under the head of Canker. 

Grafting appears to those who may see 
others performing it very easy, like looking at 
another who may write a fine hand, but it 
requires much practice to become a clean 
grafter, as well as it does to write a clean 
hand ; at the same time I shall endeavour so 
fully to explain it, that it may be of consider- 
able advantage to the pupil. 

There are various ways to graft, but the best 
and usual method for stocks, planted as before 
described, is what is commonly called whip- 



GRAFTING. 7 

grafting, for which we must first make the 
necessary preparation. In the first place, some 
strong loam, such as will stick well together, 
should be dug and laid in a heap, if in the dry 
the better ; for if you can run it through a 
sieve you will free it from all stones or lumps, 
which will make it mix the better. 

In the next place there must be provided a 
sufficient quantity of horse-dung (I mean the 
clean droppings from the horse quite clear 
from straw, for it is the best thing to keep the 
clay from cracking,) to allow about one-fourth 
to three-fourths of loam; this must be mix- 
ed well together, to make it smooth and fine 
enough for plastering, and sufficiently moist to 
be able to mix it about easy in the hands, but 
not too moist, otherwise it would slip off the 
stock, but that would soon be found out by 
those who are using it. 

The next thing to prepare is some bass or 
matting for tying on the grafts. For stocks of 
the age and size before-mentioned, it should 
be cut about one foot and a half long, and 
tied in small bundles ready for the man who is 
to tie the grafts. 

Now having all ready we must watch our 



8 GRAFTING. 

season for grafting: where there is a great 
quantity to do it is necessary to begin as early 
as the season will admit ; and as apples are not 
so early as cherries, plums, or pears, (where 
you have these to graft) your apples must wait 
till they are done ; but if you can begin your 
apples about the middle of March, and finish 
by the second week in April, it is very rare 
that it is too late for apples, for I have grafted 
apples with success in the last week in April, 
when the stocks have been out in full leaf; 
but this is a dangerous practice, for if the wea- 
ther sets in very dry, it will so dry up the juices 
of the stocks that many cannot be expected to 
grow, and what do will be very weak, and 
scarcely ever make handsome standards. 

In the next place must be got ready the 
scions or cuttings, which should be of one 
year's growth, and as firm and strong as you 
can get them, so that they are not too large 
for the stocks ; for although weak cuttings will 
grow they will not make near the growth as 
the strong cuttings, neither will they bear a 
dry harsh spring so well. Now we proceed 
to grafting. In the first place you cut down 
your stocks within four or five inches from the 
ground, which in large nurseries is done by a 
man before the grafter. After the grafter a 



GRAFTING. 

man to tie the grafts, then follow two boys, the 
one to what is commonly called dabb, or put 
the clay on the graft, and the other to close the 
clay ; in this way you may get through much 
grafting, if the grafter be quick. The grafter 
should have the scions cut in lengths about six 
inches long, and carry them in his apron ; 
then taking out one at a time he should hold 
it firm in his left hand, then take a slice off 
the end of the scion, rather more than an inch 
long, and be careful not to let your knife cut 
too deep to get into the pith till it gets near 
the end of the slice this is one reason why I 
recommend so short a slice, for in taking a 
long slice you are apt to cut along the pith, 
which is very injurious, although it may not 
signify so much with apples it is a bad prac- 
tice to follow, for in grafting cherries you will 
scarcely ever have a crop, or what is commonly 
called a good hit. Having made your slice in 
the manner described, you then cut a tongue 
or slit, which should be about a quarter of an 
inch long, (this is another material thing to 
pay attention to,) commencing about a quarter 
of an inch below the top of the slice ; let your 
knife go in not more than half-way through the 
scion, for if you cut too far in when your grafts 
are united, you must be at the unnecessary 
trouble of shouldering or tying them again 

B 3 



10 GRAFTING. 

round the top, otherwise those cut too far 
through when they have grown any size, the 
winds will blow down, even after tying them 
a second time. 

Having got your scion ready you take a 
slice of your stock the length of the slice on 
your scion, make a tongue or slit about the 
same length as that on your scion, beginning 
nearly at the top of the slice, letting your knife 
slope gradually into the stock. If your stock 
is much larger than your scion do not make 
your slice too deep into the stock, in order 
that your scion may touch the inner rind of the 
stock on both sides as well as the bottom, but 
be careful to let your scion just touch the 
bottom of the slice on the stock, as that is 
necessary both for its making a good growth 
the first summer, and likewise for its healing 
well over, for the graft derives by far more 
nourishment from the bottom than the side, but 
be sure do not let your scion go below the 
slice on the stock. By this practice you put 
on the graft in the centre of the stock, which is 
much better than putting it on the side, and 
by this practice you need not tie your grafts 
a second time. 



TYING OF GRAFTS. 11 

TYING OF GRAFTS- 

Par. 4. Having given the necessary in- 
structions for the grafter, tying of grafts is 
the next consideration : the tying is done by a 
man who follows the grafter ; he must have his 
bass or matting cut in lengths about one 
foot and a half long, or if the stocks are large, 
it may be longer ; this tied in small bundles 
should be taken one at a time, (after dipping it 
in water to make it tough) and tied in the 
string of the apron, putting one end in the 
apron to keep it moist ; the bass should be 
strong, otherwise should it break if the grafter 
be quick, he will have to wait for the man 
who ties : the man being now prepared, he 
should begin to tie about four stocks behind 
the grafter, and keep about that distance, 
which will give the grafter room. 

The bass should be placed firm against the 
bottom of the scion, and not let slip, which 
will prevent the scion from being put out of its 
place ; this is very necessary to be observed, 
for if the scion is removed by the tying, it 
is useless for the grafter to be particular 
about putting the grafts on ; he should then 
tie it tight round till it comes to the top of the 
stock, where it should have a tight hitch to 



12 TYIJfG OF GRAFTS. 

fasten off, then cut the end of the bass close 
off, for if the end is left an inch long, which I 
have often seen, it prevents the clay from 
being properly closed, consequently admit- 
ting the air to the graft, which often proves 
fatal. 

The next thing is putting on the clay, com- 
monly called dabbing : this is done by a boy 
who follows the man who ties ; having put his 
clay into something to carry it with him, he 
must take a small piece of clay sufficient to 
cover the whole of the incision, and to come 
about half an inch above the top of the stock, 
in order that it may hang well on the shoulder ; 
this he should roll up in his hands nearly in 
the form of an egg, then make a hollow in one 
side of it with one hand, sufficiently deep, that 
when it is put on the stock, it will enclose it 
all round alike. 

After the dabber follows another boy, called 
the closer ; he follows with a pot of dry ashes, 
or dust, to rub his hands with to keep them 
from sticking to the clay, and closes up every 
crack, squeezing it tight round the bottom of 
the clay to keep it from slipping ; then making 
it perfectly smooth, nearly in the form of an 
egg, it finishes the grafting. 



MANAGEMENT OF GRAFTS. 13 

The above is the general way of grafting in 
large nurseries about London ; but where small 
quantities only are wanted to be grafted, the 
grafter may tie his own grafts, and one boy 
will serve both to dab and close. 

I have treated as fully as possible on grafting 
of apples, as it will serve for most other fruits* 
for this practice of grafting, is far preferable to 
saddle or rind grafting for fruit trees. 

MANAGEMENT OF GRAFTS. 

Par. 5. We next proceed to the manage- 
ment of grafts, which it is necessary to^ pay 
great attention to. 

The grafts will not require any thing to be 
done to them till they have grown five or six 
inches long, unless suckers should breakout 
from the stock before the graft shoots, which 
must be carefully cut off and not pulled off, 
for by pulling them off you leave holes in the 
stock which the insect is very fond of getting 
into, and of course the bottom is the most dan- 
gerous part of the tree to get the canker in, 
therefore they should be cut off as clean as 
possible, and when the grafts have grown five 
or six inches long, you should watch your op- 
portunity after rain and the clay is wet, to go 



14 SNAGGING OF GRAFTS. 

over your grafts and take off those clays which 
have grown out that length, as they will then 
come off easy, and leave those which have not 
grown out sufficient till another time, for if you 
take them off too soon, and hot dry weather 
should ensue, they are very apt to wither up ; 
if the weather should continue dry, and your 
grafts grow too long, you must then get the 
clays off by knocking them with the handle of 
your knife, or any thing that will answer the 
purpose, but be sure to hold the graft as steady 
as you can with one hand to keep it from being 
removed out of its place, for that would be sure 
death to the graft, therefore as this is so much 
more trouble it is necessary to take every op- 
portunity after rain. 

The day after the clays are removed you 
may untie the bass, observing that you cut 
your bass at the back of the stock, and by fol- 
lowing the above practice they will require 
no more tying, nor any further attention through 
the summer, than keeping them free from 
suckers, and cutting off the small piece of 
wood at the top of the stock, commonly called 
snagging, but this must be carefully done. 

SNAGGING OF GRAFTS. 

Par. 6. When you commence this work, 



MANAGEMENT OF APPLES IN NURSERY. 15 

which you may do any time after midsummer, 
it is necessary to have a sharp knife with a 
smooth edge to avoid the knife slipping and 
cutting the stem of the graft, which it is very 
apt to do if your knife has a bad edge, and by 
making those cuts in the summer season it 
leaves a place where the insect is very fond 
of getting in and causing the tree to canker. 

It is necessary your knife should be strong, 
and held very tight in the hand : after a little 
practice if your stocks are not very strong, you 
will be able to take the snag off with one cut, and 
after this work is performed they will require 
no further attention through the summer. I 
shall hereafter make some interesting observa- 
tions on grafting generally, with other methods. 

PRUNING AND MANAGEMENT OF APPLES 
WHILE IN THE NURSERY. 

Par. 7. The next thing to explain is the 
pruning and management while they remain in 
the nursery. The first autumn after grafting 
they are what are called maiden trees, and 
they generally produce from one to three 
shoots, and are by many preferred in this state 
for general planting, where dwarf trees are re- 
quired, which, in some instances, are to be re- 
commended ; for where the tree has thrown 



16 MANAGEMENT OF APPLES IN NURSERY. 

out three shoots from the alternate buds (but 
not twin buds from the same joint,) the three 
shoots will be quite sufficient to form the bot- 
tom of the tree, and those shoots wiil often 
throw out quite wood enough for the tree to 
support, which will be hereafter explained 
under the general head of pruning/ 

But I shall now confine myself to the general 
management, while they remain in the nursery. 
Dwarf trees, as well as standards, being now 
in general request, it is necessary, when the 
pruning season commences, to reserve those 
for dwarfs which are not likely to make stan- 
dards; therefore, after having drawn or taken 
away as many maiden trees as you may require, 
all those you intend for standards you must 
take off all shoots but one, leaving the strongest 
and most upright. 

Those intended for dwarfs should be those 
where the shoots are not upright or strong ; 
in this case you ought to cut all off but two 
shoots, and cut those shoots down to about 
three buds ; or where one shoot is much 
weaker than the other, in order to form a hand- 
some tree, it is better to take off the weak 
shoot and cut down the strong one to four or 
five buds, which will produce quite a sufficient 



MANAGEMENT OF APPLES IN NURSERY. 17 

quantity of shoots, and prevent the tree grow- 
ing strong on one side and weak on the other ; 
this having been performed, will be all the 
pruning they will require till the following 
summer, when those intended for standards 
will require what is called spurring in, that is, 
while they are in a growing state, soon after 
Midsummer, the young shoots which they 
throw out from the side of the tree should be 
cut off within about an inch from the stem, ex- 
cept about five or six at the top, which will 
cause a general circulation of the sap, and 
make the trees grow evidently stronger and 
taller during the summer ; but unless they are 
taken before they have done growing, it will 
be of no use, but had better cut them close off 
to the stem towards autumn, which it is ne- 
cessary should be done to form a head with 
five or six shoots. 

The trees at this age being generally about 
three or four feet high in the stem, and com- 
monly called half standards, those wishing to 
plant half standards, cannot plant them at a 
better age, if the trees have made a strong 
growth, for the shoots are alternately formed, 
and consequently never crowd or injure each 
other, which is often the case where a tree has 
been headed down unless it is carefully pruned. 



18 MANAGEMENT OF APPLES IN NURSERY. 

but this the reader will be more fully furnished 
with under the head of pruning. 

The dwarfs likewise after one year heading 
down, will have formed shoots enough, and will 
never be at a better age for planting. 

Although a few trees may have grown five or 
six feet high, and make tolerable good standards 
the second year, you seldom find many ; there- 
fore after taking away as many half standards 
as you may have occasion for, the March fol- 
lowing begin to make your half standards into 
standards, by cutting off all the side shoots, 
leaving the upright shoots, cutting that off 
about five feet six inches high, and some six 
feet, but trees are none the better for being too 
high in the stem. 

After the next summer's growth, if the trees 
are tolerably strong and have formed a head of 
five or six shoots, they cannot be in a better 
state for general planting, for their shoots 
likewise are formed alternately from the stem, 
which when they get large, causes every limb 
to receive free and equal nourishment from the 
main stem. 

As the trees will not be all fit this season, it is 



MANAGEMENT OF APPLES IN NURSERY. 19 

necessary to be careful how those are pruned 
which are left, in order to keep their heads 
young, free, and flourishing ; if the stem of the 
tree should not be higher than you may 
wish it, the best way will be to trim the 
lower shoots clean off, leaving only the two top 
ones, and cut those two down to about three 
or four buds each ; or if you wish the tree lower 
you must cut it down to the two bottom 
shoots, and be careful when you are pruning at 
this season, to cut as close as you can to a bud, 
for what wood you leave above the bud be- 
comes a dead substance, and if it does no other 
injury it greatly disfigures the tree, besides 
making it awkward to remove after the tree 
has formed a head. 

The above instructions are from the time 
of planting the stocks. I have allowed 
them to remain six years in the quarters before 
the ground is cleared, which I think quite long 
enough, therefore shall not give any further in- 
structions for pruning while they remain in the 
nursery, for they would not pay for standing, 
neither would I recommend old trees for plant- 
ing, for although old trees may grow and per- 
haps bear almost immediately, the fruit would 
not be near so fine as those produced from 



20 ON THE CULTIVATION OF APPLES. 

young trees, neither would they succeed so 
well in future. 



OBSERVATIONS BEFORE THE GENERAL CULTI- 
VATION OF APPLES. 

Par. 8. It is both necessary and important 
to make some observations on the cultivation 
of apples, as it more or less affects fruit growers 
generally, for it is too often the case, (some for 
want of thought, others for want of experience) 
to go upon one broad plan, without studying 
the situation, the soil, or the different sorts of 
fruit, which would best suit the different situ- 
ations, which I shall endeavour to explain, at 
the same time confine myself to a limited num- 
ber of sorts such as are most esteemed, for to 
introduce two or three hundred sorts of apples, 
two thirds of which are not worth growing, 
would only confuse the reader and render it 
difficult to choose. 

I shall therefore confine myself to fifty sorts, 
giving each their true character; for it is very 
necessary when you plant either in large quan- 
tities for the market, or in gardens for the use of 
the family, to plant such sorts as will come 
in succession all the year round, which will be 



CULTIVATION OF DWARF APPLES. 21 

here explained, and the different seasons when 
each sort is in its highest perfection. 

CULTIVATION OF DWARF APPLES. 

Par. 9. As dwarf apples are now so much 
cultivated, we will commence with planting un- 
trained dwarfs in gardens : having first selected 
your sorts, you must get such trees from the 
nursery as described in paragraph the seventh ; 
but before you plant, you should study the 
situation and the soil ; for although many per- 
sons are afraid to plant apples, because those of 
their neighbours do not flourish, and the land 
does not appear to suit them, I should not be 
afraid of failing to have fine trees and fine fruit 
in any soil with my treatment. 

Apples are fond of a deep loamy soil, 
and a situation where they will have plenty of 
sun, and where the soil is naturally good ; you 
need not take any further trouble (where the 
ground is in the habit of being dug) than open- 
ing a hole sufficiently large to take the root 
in easily, loosening the bottom of the hole 
about a spade deep, and having pruned the 
roots, plant them in the same soil, and 
these you may plant in any convenient corner 
of the garden, the same as you would a currant 
or gooseberry tree, and if required will not take 



22 DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING IN BAD SOIL. 

up more room by being properly pruned ; 
and the same rule may be followed in the 
shrubbery, at such convenient distances 
where you can find an open place for 
the sun to get at the fruit, or if a piece of 
ground is set apart for a plantation of dwarf 
apples, the distance I should recommend, 
would be about twelve feet apart, and then by 
keeping them properly pruned, they would 
have plenty of room to grow and receive the 
nourishment of the sun and air. See Prun- 
ing. 

DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING IN BAD SOIL. 

Par. 10. I shall now give directions for 
planting where the apples are not fond of the 
soil, say the soil is of a gravelly nature, or 
nearly a bed of gravel. 

You must open a hole at least three feet 
square and three feet deep, bring in some 
soil bordering on clay, and put at bottom (which 
will keep cool) about one foot thick, then fill 
up the other two feet with rich loam, and plant 
your tree right in the centre. 

This it may be said is a great deal of trouble, 
but what is a garden without an apple tree, and 



CULTIVATION OF STANDARD APPLES. 23 

when once done they will last for many years, 
either in gravelly or sandy soil, in neither of 
which apples will do well alone. 

It is under the above treatment indispensably 
necessary to study the sort of stock your apple 
is grafted on \ it should be the small Paradise 
stock, for apples grafted on these stocks will 
bloom beautifully and produce fruit even in pots, 
as the root is of a fine fibrous nature, and will 
remain in a small compass ; but the crab is natu- 
rally a strong rooted tree, and would soon over- 
run the boundaries of the hole made for it, and 
consequently not flourish after : in fact, apples 
grafted on paradise stocks are greatly recom- 
mended as dwarfs, where you do not want the 
trees to grow large, for they generally bear 
very freely on those stocks, and although the 
fruit will come very fine, they do not produce 
near such strong wood as those grafted on the 
crab ; in all cases in planting of apples be care- 
ful not to plant them too deep, but merely 
cover the roots well. 

CULTIVATION OF STANDARD APPLES. 

Par. 1 1 . The culture of standard apples is so 
generally known in this country, it is not neces- 
sary to make many observations ; at the same 
time a few may not be considered superfluous. 



24 CULTIVATION OF STANDARD APPLES. 

In the first place, when you select your trees 
from the nursery, be careful there is no blemish 
on the stem caused by the canker : and when 
orchards are planted the trees should stand at 
least sixteen feet apart, but distances vary in 
different counties, from sixteen to forty feet ; I 
should recommend about twenty feet, or 
twenty-five if the land is very good, to give 
room for the under crop, and as there is no fear 
in future of the trees decaying through the 
canker, it would be better than planting them 
nearer, for it is necessary for the meadow to 
have a free current of air, otherwise it would 
produce a poor sour pasturage. 

It is a very good plan to plant the trees three 
or four years or more before the ground is laid 
down for grass, for keeping the ground dug 
about the trees while young greatly encourages 
their growth, and they then become strong 
and out of the way of cattle. 

This plan is often adopted by hop growers to 
plant their trees before the hop grounds are 
worn out, and when the meadow is laid down, 
there is at once a fine young orchard in bear- 
ing without further trouble, and while the trees 
are in that young state they do so little injury 
to the under crops, that the same method may 



PRUNING OF DWARF APPLES. 25 

be adopted by cropping the land with vegeta- 
bles or corn, but not too near the tree, for any 
thing of strong growth i& very injurious ; those 
who plant standards in gardens, must be guided 
by the spots they can best select to plant the 
trees where they will do the least injury to the 
vegetable crops. 

It would be very wrong to plant standard 
apple orchards on very inferior land, and on 
good land I would by no means recommend very 
large holes, for the ground will naturally sink, 
thereby causing the tree to be considerably 
lower than it ought, which is very injurious, 
particularly if sunk below the graft, at the same 
time they should be made sufficiently large to 
let the roots in easily, and the earth at the bot- 
tom of the hole finely loosened full one foot 
deep before the tree is put in. 

PRUNING OF DWARF APPLES. 

Par. 12. The pruning of apple trees is a most 
important thing to attend to, and to understand, 
both for keeping the trees in a healthy state, 
and likewise for the production of fine fruit, 
particularly dwarfs, of which I shall first treat; 
I mean common dwarfs (called by some dwarf 
standards) and not dwarf trained trees 

It is necessary to commence from the maiden 



26 PRUNING OF DWARF APPLES. 

graft, and go on till the tree is in a state of 
maturity, in order to render the process as 
clear as possible. 

Suppose your maiden tree has only one or 
two shoots, it is then necessary to cut them 
down to four or five buds, to get a sufficiency of 
wood to form the bottom of the tree ; the 
following season leave about five of the most 
regular shoots which will be quite sufficient, 
or even four, for they are none the better for 
being crowded with limbs from the stem. 

But as apples, sometimes the first year after 
planting, will scarcely make any growth, they 
had better stand one year after planting be- 
fore they are headed down; but I should 
prefer those trees which have been one year 
headed down in the nursery, having enough 
shoots to form the bottom of the tree ; I should 
not leave more than six shoots at the outside, 
but what you take out, take out clean, and be 
sure not to leave any blemish, nor bruise the 
.bark with the knife, for that part of the tree 
the insect is very fond of, and of all others, it 
is the most dangerous. 

I here beg leave to differ from those who re- 
commend heading down dwarf apple trees, 
when they have wood sufficient to form the 



PRUNING OF DWARF APPLES. 27 

bottom of the tree ; I prefer letting it remain, 
for, as the new wood will grow but little the 
first year, the shoots will swell and get strong, 
and if it is a good bearer will form bloom 
buds all up these young shoots : this perhaps, 
will alarm some to allow the tree to bear so 
young, but it must be remembered that the 
trees while young will produce the finest fruit : 
besides it is necessary to throw them into bear- 
ing early, to keep them from growing too luxu- 
riantly. It is useless having a great fruitless 
tree covering a large space of ground, while by 
proper management you can get an equal 
quantity of fruit off a tree half the size, and 
that fruit finer, and the tree kept sufficiently 
strong and in perfect health, by the mode of 
pruning I shall adopt. 

Now the tree having stood two years with- 
out being headed down as before described, it 
will throw out some young side shoots towards 
the top of the original shoots, these should be 
cut off within two buds of the bottom, allow- 
ing the original shoots to grow straight up, till 
they get to the height you wish them, say five 
or six feet or higher, then cut their tops off, 
and keep all the young shoots spurred in every 
year, to about two buds, nearly the same as 
you would a red currant tree ; by this means 
it will throw all those spurs into bloom buds, 

c2 



28 PRUNING OF STANDARD APPLES. 

and I have seen by this process, the trees hang- 
ing from bottom to top with apples like ropes 
of onions ; and by pruning away all that su- 
perfluous wood, the fruit receives the whole 
strength and nourishment of the tree ; and be- 
sides by this method, you not only throw your 
trees into bearing, and produce more fruit, but 
they have the advantage of the sun, so essen- 
tial both for their flavour and beauty; the 
trouble is no more than that of pruning your 
currants and gooseberries, and surely apples 
are to be worth as much attention. 

When the trees begin to get old, you may 
occasionally leave a clean young shoot, and the 
following year remove an old one, and by so 
doing you will keep your trees in a young, 
healthy, bearing state. 

Dwarf apples on the small Paradise stock, 
may (if required) be kept in a much less space 
than those described above, and by this way 
of pruning the trees may be kept perfectly 
free from the canker. See Canker. 

PRUNING OF STANDARD APPLES. 

Par. 13. The pruning of standard apples 
has for many years past been attended with 
very dangerous consequences, on account of 
the canker ; for where the tree has not been 



PRUNING OF STANDARD APPLES. 29 

cut particularly clean, or left at all bruised, 
there the insect would be sure to get in, and 
keep wounding the tree further and further, 
till it completely ruined it ; therefore, in all 
kinds of pruning, you ought to cut very smooth 
and clean, and then it will soon heal over, but 
if bruised or left rough, it will not. 

Although I am going to introduce a cure for 
the canker, it is necessary to give the above 
caution in pruning. 

Now, having selected my standards with 
young heads, such as are recommended in pa- 
ragraph the seventh, I should plant them with- 
out touching their heads with a knife, for if 
you cut them down, and they do not break 
freely the first year, they seldom do well after ; 
but if the head is not cut, and the tree does not 
grow much the first year, it will get strong, 
and the main shoots from the stem will get 
strong likewise, and sooner get out of the way 
of cattle. 

But where you plant trees that have been 
two or three years headed down in the nursery, 
it is necessary to cut out any cross shoots, or 
where two shoots are close together to take 
away one, for although they might not injure- 



30 PRUNING OF STANDARD APPLES. 

while young, they would when they grew old, 
and the tree not grow so handsome, 

I must add a further reason for not cutting 
down the heads of fresh planted standard 
apples : I have often seen them] when they have 
been cut down, instead of making fine young 
heads, throw out short shoots two or three 
inches long, and those (if they are good 
bearers) formed into bloom, which stagnates 
the tree, and seldom forms a good head 
after. 

Standard trees planted, and their heads left 
in this state, will require no pruning till the 
trees get large and too full of wood, except an 
occasional cross branch, and taking out all 
dead pieces, 

But old trees should occasionally be thinned 
where they grow too thick of wood, and this 
should be performed with a saw where the 
branches are large, but be sure to saw them 
off without splitting or injuring the bark, and 
as the saw will leave it rough, the part where 
it has been^ sawed off should be made smooth 
with a sharp knife, otherwise it will not heal 
so well or so soon ; but I shall treat further 
on this subject under the head of Canker. 



PRUNING OF TRAINED APPLES. 31 

PRUNING OF TRAINED APPLES. 

Par. 14. As trained apples are not so much 
in request since the introduction of common 
Dwarfs, and as the pruning of them has been 
so fully explained, it is necessary only to state 
after the tree has been properly trained in the 
nursery, the pruning it will require, will be si- 
milar to the pruning and management of Dwarf 
apples, in paragraph the twelfth. 

There is one great benefit arising from trained 
apples ; while young the wind has not the 
power of shaking them about so much, and 
consequently the fruit is not so likely to fall ; 
likewise, if they have no other trees to shade 
them, the fruit is sure to receive the benefit of 
the sun. 

The season I should recommend for pruning 
apples, is from the middle of January till the 
middle of March; some will prune through 
April, and so late as May ; but my opinion i s 
by causing the sap to flow, and the tree to 
bleed too freely when the bloom is tender, 
often causes the fruit not to set well. 

Another thing should be observed in pruning 
of dwarf and trained apple trees : there are some 



32 BUDDING OF APPLES. 

sorts which bear principally at the end of the 
young shoots; where that is the case, you should 
always leave plenty of the young one year 
shoots ; for want of a knowledge of this many 
fail in their crops on trained trees, for if the 
bloom is cut off we cannot have fruit ; this is 
easily discovered by leaving those sorts you 
are unacquainted with till March, before you 
prune them, you will then see where they shew 
their bloom, and the tree may be kept free by 
taking away old wood instead of young. 

BUDDING OF APPLES. 

Par. 15. Budding of apples some years 
back, was much more practised than at the 
present day, although in some nurseries in the 
country, it is still continued, and, of course 
they think it best : but I will here give my 
reasons for not approving of the general prac- 
tice of budding apples. 

The argument of those who approve of bud- 
ding apples is, they generally grow taller for 
standards the first summer, there being but 
one shoot for the stock to support : granted ; 
but this is often the cause of crooked, weak, 
stemmed trees, for having run up so tall, they 
frequently throw out shoots at the top the 
following summer, which are often too heavy 



DESCRIPTION OF BUDDING. 33 

for the stem to support, and they consequently 
bend down and grow crooked. 

Another very great objection to budding 
apples is the canker, for buds are generally 
untied late in summer, and there is naturally a 
wound in the stock, which the most scientific 
budder cannot prevent ; and this is the season 
of the year, of all others the most dangerous, 
for the insect is fond of a wound where they 
can enter for their winter quarters, and that 
spot of all others is the most dangerous in the 
tree for the canker to take place. 

But although I do not recommend it generally, 
sometimes it is necessary : if you wish to make 
the most of a cutting, or it might happen you 
would be able to get a cutting of some fa- 
vourite sort at the budding season, and could 
not at the grafting season. I will, therefore, 
give as clear a description of budding, as can 
be given in writing, which will serve not only 
for budding apples, but all other fruits. 

DESCRIPTION OF BUDDING. 

Par. 16.- Budding is an art which requires 
long practice, and close attention, to arrive at 
perfection in ; indeed most authors have said, 
it is impossible to convey an accurate idea to 



34 DESCRIPTION OF BUDDING. 

the reader, but I will endeavour to state it so- 
plain, that I think with attention it may be of 
service. 

The budding of apples is what we now have- 
before us ; in the first place, it is necessary to 
attend to the state of the stocks you intend to 
bud, for some seasons are much earlier than? 
others, and some soils will cause the stocks, 
either Crabs or Paradise, to grow much longer 
than others ; and in budding of all kinds of 
fruit trees, it is very necessary to bud them be- 
fore the stocks have stopped growing. 

Generally the best time for apples, is late in 
August, but this must entirely depend on the 
state of the stocks, or trees, which you intend 
to bud. 

The stocks being ready, you should endea- 
vour to get your cuttings (which must be of 
the same summer's growth) as firm and ripe as 
you can, and having prepared some strong new 
matting for the purpose, you proceed to bud- 
cling. 

After cutting the leaves off the cutting or 
scion, cut off the top likewise, as low down as 
it is soft and too green, then with your budding 



DESCRIPTION OF BUDDINO. 35 

knife which must have a very keen edge, take 
off the top bud from the scion, commencing 
with your knife about an inch below the bud, 
then hold the bud firm between your thumb and 
finger, and take out the piece of wood the re- 
verse way of the bud, leaving nothing but the 
rind, this must be done clean without leaving 
it any way ragged ; you then look, (and in this 
it is necessary to be very particular,) to see if 
taking out the wood has injured the bud, which 
it will do in various ways ; sometimes it will 
draw all the centre of the bud out, which ren- 
ders the bud of no use whatever ; sometimes it 
will leave the bud very hollow ; in that case they 
are doubtful ; therefore if you are not short of 
cuttings do not make use of one bud unless it is 
quite plump and level with the inside rind, and 
then you may almost make a certainty of its 
growing ; on the contrary, you cannot depend 
on them, for they will often keep alive to all 
appearance even through the winter, but will 
not shoot in spring ; in fact, this is one of the 
most nice points in budding; having your 
bud ready, you next proceed to open the in- 
cision in the stock or tree ; the incision is made 
nearly in the form of a letter T, cutting through 
the rind first at the top about halfway round the 
stock, then commencing with your knife about 
two inches lower down, draw your knife up 



36 HEADING STOCKS WHICH ARE BUDDED. 

to the cut at the top, and before you take your 
knife out, gently open the rind on one side, 
which will let in the handle of your budding 
knife, then open the incision so that it will 
let in the bud to the bottom, and cut off what 
may remain too long for the incision ; tie the 
bud tight round with some strong matting, ob- 
serving that you do not let the bass go at all 
over the bud, for that is sure death ; give it a 
tight hitch to fasten off and the budding is 
finished. 

UNTYING OF BUDS. 

Par. 17. When the stocks or trees have 
been budded about six weeks, it is necessary to 
untie the bass from them ; it is the practice of 
some to tie them again, but this is quite unne- 
cessary, except where they have been budded 
in very free growing young wood, but even 
then if the bass is not tied too tight,they need 
not be, or at least very seldom, tied again. 

HEADING DOWN STOCKS WHICH ARE BUDDED. 

Par 18. The heading down of stocks or trees 
which have been budded is the next process ; 
they should be cut off about four inches 
above the bud; this may bed one any time after 
Christmas, but about the end of February is a 
good time ; they are not so well to be left 



TYING AND SUCKERING OF BUDS. 37 

much later in the season, otherwise the bud is 
apt to go blind, through the sap rising more up 
into the head of the stock or tree. 

A 

TYING AND SUCKERING OF BUDS. 

Par. 19. The next thing is the tying and 
suckering of buds; it is necessary when the 
suckers shoot out from the stocks to cut them 
clean off, in order to give the bud all the en- 
couragement you can, and when the bud has 
grown fpur or five inches long, tie it gently up 
to the piece of the stock which is left above 
the bud, but be sure to leave a sufficient space 
between the bud and the stock for the bud to 
swell, after this you have no further trouble 
with them, except keeping them free from 
suckers till they want snagging, for which see 
snagging, Paragraph 4. 

OBSERVATIONS BEFORE THE EXPLANATORY 
LIST OF SORTS. 

Par. 20. Having given all the necessary 
information for the cultivation, pruning, and 
general management of apple trees, I shall next 
furnish the reader with an explanatory list of 
sorts, giving each their true character. 



38 



EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 

TABLE OR DESERT APPLES, 

Par. 21. Ribston Pippin ; this is one of the 
most celebrated apples in cultivation, it is ripe 
in October, and in the months of November 
and December, it is considered by most supe- 
rior in flavour to any apple at that season ; its 
bloom is simple and by no means showy for the 
shrubbery ; it is a general bearer, but will not 
keep late, for if the fruit does not rot, it will 
lose its juices and become insipid. It will also 
make excellent sauce, but it is generally recom- 
mended as one of the best table apples. 

Par. 22. Court of "Wyck Pippin ; this is a 
very handsome small table, apple ; it is said to 
be a seedling from the old golden pippin ; it 
ripens in October, is a good bearer, and will 
keep through the winter. 

Par. 23. Scarlet Nonpareil; this is a very 
choice table apple, in high perfection at Christ- 
mas, at which season it is not excelled by any 
apple for beauty and flavour ; it is rather larger 
than the old nonpareil, of very handsome form* 
and if the fruit stands open to the sun, it will 
turn of a beautiful scarlet ; it produces a prodigi- 
ous quantity of bloom, and generally bears 
well. 



EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 39 

Par. 24. Old Nonpareil; this is an apple 
too well known to require much explanation 
or recommendation ; it is a fine keeping table 
fruit. 

Par. 25. Downton Pippin ; this is one of 
the productions of Mr. Knight, of Downton 
Castle, and President of the Horticultural So- 
ciety ; it is a very handsome small yellow ap- 
ple, very full of juice, of rather a tart flavour ; it 
is a great bearer and in high perfection in the 
autumn. 

Par. 26. Sykehouse; this is a small firm 
table apple of a russet colour, handsome form, 
and equal, from Christmas till May, to the old 
nonpareil ; it is a very great bearer. 

We have not a better keeping table apple 
in England. 

Par. 27. Yellow Ingestry Pippin ; this is a 
very handsome small yellow table fruit, a good 
bearer, and is in perfection about October. 

Par. 28. Hicks Fancy ; this is a most deli- 
cious desert apple, of small size, a very great 
bearer, and will keep; but it is best before 
Christmas. 



40 EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. N 

Par 29. Old Golden Pippin ; this apple as 
a table fruit, is decidedly one of the best in this 
country ; although there are many apples far su- 
perior to it in flavour before Christmas : it is not 
excelled by any after, and consequently at a sea- 
son when most of our finest table apples are gone 
by. I cannot pass over this fruit without making 
a few observations, knowing an impression has 
been made on some gentlemen, that the Golden 
Pippin is entirely wearing out, and there- 
fore useless to cultivate it ; in this I must beg 
leave to differ: from my great practice among 
apples, I am satisfied they are to be kept in as 
flourishing a state as ever they were, for the cause 
of its early decay is entirely from the canker, 
which is the case with most sorts of weak 
growth, but the Golden Pippin is one of the in- 
sect's greatest favourites ; therefore by keeping 
the body of the trees sound, you may depend 
on your Golden Pippins flourishing as well as 
ever. 

Par. 30. Franklin's Golden Pippin ; this is 
a very good juicy table apple, a good bearer 
and will keep in high perfection in November. 

Par. 31. Oslin; the true Oslin is a very 
early summer apple of a spicy flavour, and by 
many very much admired ; the bloom is also 
very handsome for the shrubbery. 



EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 41 

Par. 32. Scarlet Pearmain ; this is a hand- 
some table apple of a fine scarlet colour, full of 
fine sweet juice, and a great bearer; ripens 
early in the autumn, and will keep through the 
winter. 

Par. 33. Royal Pearmain ; this apple is 
very handsomely formed, of rather a russet red 
colour, and a good size for the table, the flavour 
is very fine, and it is generally a good bearer ; 
it ripens in September, but soon becomes mealy 
after it is gathered. 

Par. 34. Margaret Apple ; this is a good 
summer apple of a red colour, with a little rus- 
set towards the eye ; it is a good bearer and 
ripens in August. 

Par. 35 Kirke's Duchess of Oldenburgh ; 
this is a table apple of a tolerable size ; it is rather 
a flat form ; the ground of the fruit when ripe 
is a greenish yellow, beautifully pencilled with 
pink and red ; it is full of fine sweet juice, and 
may be fairly called one of our best summer 
table apples. 

Par. 36. Kirke's Golden Reinet ; this is a 
very handsome table apple of a golden russet 



42 EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 

colour, and a fine red next the sun; the flavour 
is very fine ; it ripens about October, and is 
good till after Christmas. 

Par. 37. King of the Pippins ; this apple 
ripens late in the summer, and to eat it from 
the tree it is equal in flavour to any at that 
season ; but a few days after it is gathered it 
looses its flavour, or at least is very materially 
diminished. 

Par. 38. Wellington Apple ; this is a very 
handsome keeping table fruit, and deserves to 
be brought into general cultivation ; the fruit 
is of a pale green ground, of a beautiful pale 
red or rather pink next the sun, and is a great 
addition to the deserts at, and after Christmas. 

Par. 39. Kerry Pippin ; this is a much ad- 
mired summer table apple, and is a good bearer. 

Par. 40. Wheeler's Russet; this apple, 
as a table fruk, deserves the highest character ; 
it is rather larger than the old nonpareil, much 
like it in appearance and flavour ; it is a great 
bearer, and will keep till May. 

Par. 41. Powell's Russet is a most excel- 



EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 43 

lent table apple; it is smaller than Wheeler's, 
very fine flavour, a great bearer, and will keep 
through the winter. 

Par. 42. Devonshire Whitesour ; this is a 
very early summer table apple, of a whitish yel- 
low colour ; it has fine melting flesh, with very 
rich juice ; it is a good bearer, and is greatly 
admired. 

Par. 43. Margell is a table apple, in flavour 
much like the Ribston Pippin, but does not 
grow so large; it is a great bearer, and will 
keep till spring. 

Par. 44. Christy's Pippin; this is an 
apple not much known at present ; it is one of 
the best table apples among the new varieties-; 
in form much like the Nonsuch, firm and juicy, 
of a greenish colour, fine flavoured, is a very 
great bearer, and will keep through the winter/ 

APPLES FOR CULINARY PURPOSES. 

Par. 45. -Beauty of Kent; this is one of 
the largest apples in cultivation ; it is a most 
excellent apple for sauce, looks very handsome 
on the trees, is a great bearer, and will keep. 

Par. 46. Kirke's Emperor Alexander ; 



44 EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 

this is a fine sauce apple, and is decidedly the 
most beautiful apple grown. I have known 
them measure sixteen inches round ; and al- 
though they grow so large, they seldom fall 
from the trees if sound ; it is a good bearer, 
ripe late in October, and will keep till Christ- 
mas. 

Par. 47. Keswick Codlin is a large yellow 
apple, and one of the greatest bearers we have. 
This is well adapted for small gardens, for it is 
a long time before it gets large through its 
great bearing; it ripens in September, but will 
not keep long after they are gathered. 

Par. 48. Luccumb's Seedling, is a great 
bearer, of a greenish yellow striped with red, 
will grow large ; it is a very good sauce apple, 
and will keep through the winter. 

Par. 49. Northern Greening; this is a most 
desirable apple to plant, it is a firm green fruit, 
a very great bearer, and will keep sound till 
spring. 

Par. 50. Kirke's Scarlet Admirable ; this 
is a very fine large sauce apple, of a beautiful 
scarlet next the sun; is generally a good bearer, 
and will keep. 



EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 45 

Par. 51. Royal Russet; this is a well 
known good keeping sauce apple. 

Par. 52. Cockagee; this apple, which is 
so celebrated for cider, I have merely recom- 
mended for kitchen use, on account of its fine 
acid for being mixed with other apples in the 
tart or pudding it answers the purpose of the 
Quince. 

Par. 53. Shepherd's Newington; this is a 
fine large juicy sauce apple, and is a great bearer. 

Par. 54. Striped Holland Pippin; this 
would be very handsome in the shrubbery, for 
the bloom which comes out early is extremely 
beautiful ; it is a good bearer and a very good 
apple. 

Par. 55. Dutch Codlin ; although I cannot 
recommend this as a general bearer, the fruit 
is so fine, and the bloom so beautiful it deserves 
a place amongst a collection. 

Par. 56. Kentish Codlin; this is a very 
good bearer, not so large as the Dutch Codlin, 
but is a very good sauce apple. 

Par. 57. Norfolk Storing; this apple will 



46 EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 

keep well through the winter, and is good for 
sauce when most others are gone by ; it is ge- 
nerally a good bearer. 

Par. 58. Norfolk Beefin ; this is a well- 
known long keeping apple, of a dullish red 
colour, it is famed for baking, and is good for 
all culinary purposes. This apple will keep 
good till August, and is a general bearer. 

Par. 59. Lemon Pippin ; this is a very good 
sauce apple, of a yellow colour, is a good bearer, 
and will keep till March. 

Par. 60. Loan's Pearmain, is an excellent 
sauce apple, is a good bearer, and will keep. 

APPLES FOR DESERT OR CULINARY PURPOSES. 

Par. 61. Hawthorne Dean; this apple, for 
the beauty of its bloom, the beauty of its fruit, 
its fine flavour when in season, together with 
its wonderful bearing, surpasses every apple 
now in cultivation : if the trees stand where 
they can have the benefit of the sun they 
look as handsome as a beautiful peach ; 
the fruit is handsomely formed, of a whitish 
yellow ground, and a brilliant pink next the 
sun ; they are very full of juice, and the fla- 



EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 47 

vour universally admired while in season; it 
is generally in perfection through the month 
of September, although they are used much 
earlier, and till the end of October. If this 
apple would keep there would not be such an 
apple in cultivation, for many of them grow 
large for kitchen purposes, while the small 
ones produce a beautiful and delicious fruit for 
the desert, and it is thought by many it would 
make fine cider : but to have this fruit hand- 
some it is absolutely necessary to plant the 
trees where the fruit will receive the sun, 
otherwise it will be of a pale colour. I know 
of no plant or shrub in cultivation that would 
adorn the shrubbery more than this tree, for 
the bloom is extremely handsome in the spring, 
and in the summer the fruit would not be 
passed without being admired. 

Par. 62. Hertfordshire Pearmain; this is an 
exceedingly fine apple for winter, it is rather of 
a red russet colour, the small ones are handsome 
for the table, having a very fine flavour ; the 
large ones are most excellent for kitchen pur- 
poses. 

Par. 63. Kirke's Lord Nelson ; this apple 
is one of Mr. Kirke's finest productions, it is a 
great bearer, and very handsome; good for 



48 EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 

table or sauce, is in perfection in October, and 
will keep till Spring. 

Par. 64. French Crab, called by some the 
everlasting pippin ; this is a very firm green 
apple, it is good for culinary purposes through 
winter, and in spring is a very fine table fruit ; 
it will keep good till the early summer apples 
come in, and may be considered one of the 
most useful apples in cultivation : it might 
be grown in the country to very great ad- 
vantage for the London markets, for they are 
so firm they will not bruise like other apples, 
and in the spring they always fetch a great 
price. 

Par. 65. Nonsuch ; this well known apple 
deserves cultivation, it is a great bearer and 
very good for kitchen purposes ; and for those 
who are fond of a sharp juicy apple, they will 
do for the desert ; it ripens late in summer, 
but will not retain its flavour long after it is 
gathered. 

Par. 66. Norfolk Paradise ; this is a hand- 
some apple for table, and very good for sauce ; 
it will keep through the winter. 

Par. 67. Woodstock, or Blenheim Pippin ; 



EXPLANATORY LIST OF SORTS. 49 

this apple was produced at Woodstock, the 
seat of the Duke of Maryborough ; it is a most 
excellent apple for all purposes; it ripens in 
October, and will keep good some time. 

Par. 68. Mank's Codlin; this is one of the 
greatest bearers we have; the fruit is hand- 
somely formed, of a pale yellow colour, and 
where the sun can get at them they turn of a 
beautiful pale pink ; it is full of fine rich juice, 
and good for all purposes ; the bloom is not 
excelled by any ; it is nearly as handsome as a 
rose ; it is further to be recommended to plant 
as dwarfs in the shrubbery, for its great bloom- 
ing and bearing prevents its growing so large 
as many sorts ; it is in perfection about Sep- 
tember, but will not keep long. 

Par. 69. Pile's Russet; this is an old, well 
known excellent keeping apple, and good for 
all purposes. 

Par 70. Braddick's Nonpareil ; this apple, 
which is rather new and not much known, de- 
serves to be recommended ; it partakes much 
of the old nonpareil in flavour, but is an earlier 
apple : it is nearly of a russet colour, fine melt- 
ing flesh, and full of rich juice ; some of them 
grow a tolerable size, which will do for culi- 
D 



50 OBSERVATIONS. 

nary purposes, and the small ones afford a fine 
dessert ; it is in perfection about November, and 
will keep and retain its juices ; it is a great 
bearer. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

Par. 71. I have now furnished my readers 
with a collection of the best sorts of apples 
now in cultivation, for the different purposes as 
described in the character of each apple. Al- 
though there are more very good apples, there 
are a great many not worth recommending; in- 
deed, there are some I could mention superior 
to some of those in the list, but what a disap- 
pointment it is when your crops continually fail ! 
Some may say, why leave out such and such 
a sort, where it may probably be a favourite ? 
but there is such a confusion in the names of 
apples, that it is very likely to be in this list 
under another name, for there are several 
among them I know to have three or four dif- 
ferent names : but these are properly named as 
known by the Horticultural Society, and the 
principal nurserymen round London. 

Some may think, if they see a tree full of 
fruit it must* be a good bearer, but I have 
known some of the most shy bearers (by 
chance) produce a fine crop ; it is therefore 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF APPLES. 51 

necessary to watch its general bearing : such 
fruits as I have described here I have tho- 
roughly tried, and chosen them from a very 
large collection ; I can therefore recommend 
them with confidence. I should also wish it 
to be understood, that fruit will not ripen at the 
same time every year; in 1822 fruit generally 
was three weeks earlier than in 1823, neither 
will apples keep so well some seasons as 
others. I have mentioned the time of ripening 
as that of our usual summers. 

To confuse the reader with an explanatory 
list of other sorts for the above purposes, would 
be useless, and render it difficult to choose ; but 
as there are other very good apples, and every 
one have their favourites, I will give an alpha- 
betical list of 'names of those sorts now gene- 
rally cultivated. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF APPLES, 

NOW IN GENERAL CULTIVATION. 
TJwse marked with an asterisk (*) are described in 

the explanatory list. 
Par. 72.- 

Aromatic Russet Boatswain's Pippin 

AshmeacTs Kernel Biggs^ Nonsuch 

*Beauty of Kent Barcelona Pearoiain 

Beauty of Wilts BenwelFs Pearmain 

*Braddick's Nonpareil Bedfordshire Foundling 

D 2 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF APPLES. 



*Court of Wyck Pippin 

Crofton Apple 

Cockle Pippin 

Tostard Apple 
*Cockagee 
*Cristy's Pippin 

Carlisle Codlin 

C irnish Aromatic 

Cobham Apple 
*Downton Pippin 
*Dutch Codlin 
*Duchess of Oldenburgh 

* Devonshire Whitesour 
Duke of Beaufort's Pippin 

*Eniperor Alexander 

Embroidered Pippin 

Flower of Kent 
*Franklm's Golden Pippin 
*French Crab 

Foxley Pippin 

Farleigh Pippin 

Feartf s Pippin 

Formuse Apple 

Fall Pippin 

* Golden Pippin 
*Golden Rennet 

Gibbon's Russet 
Golden Russet 
Gough Apple 
Grange Apple 
Gray Leadington 
Golden Harvey or Brandy 
Apple 



General Wolf 
'Hawthorne Dean 
^Hertfordshire Pearmain 
*Hick's Fancy 

Hughes' Golden Pippin 

Holland Pippin 

Hall Door 

Hunt's Royal Red 
*Keswick Codlin 

Kirke's Golden Pippin 

Kirke's Incomparable 
*King of the Pippins 
*Kerry Pippin 
*Kirke's Lord Nelson 
*Kentish Codlin 

Kentish Fillbasket 
*Luccomb\s Seedling 
*Lemon Pippin 
* Loans' Pearmain 

Lewis' Gilly Flower 
*Manks Codlin or Irish 

Pitcher 
*Margaret Apple 

Marmalade Pipjaft 
*Margil 

Minchin Crab 

Memmel Pippin 
*Norfolk Storing 
*Norfolk Beefin 
*Norfolk Paradise 
*Nonpareil 

New Town Pippin 
^Northern Greening 



CIDER APPLES. 



53 



*Nonsuch 
*Oslin 

Orange Pippin 

Ord Apple 

Potter's Apple 

Pidgeon's Heart or Arabian 
Apple 

Pedley's Pippin 
*Piles Russet 

Peach Apple 

Pomgree 
*Powell's Russet 

Quince Apple 4, 

*Ribston Pippin 
*Royal Pearmain 

Royal Corpendue 

Red Quarentine 
*Royal Russet 

Ridding's Nonpareil 

Red Ingestry Pippin 

Red Juneting 
* Scarlet Nonpareil 
*Sykehouse 

Scartet Crab 

Siberian Crab 



Siberian Harvey 
Sops of Wine 
Sellswood Rennet 
*Scarlet Pearmain 
Scarlet Queening 
Southampton Pippin 

* Scarlet Admirable 

* Shepherd's Newington 
Stubbard Apple 

* Striped Holland Pippin 
Spring Grove Codlin 
Sandy's Russet 
Transparent Crab 

* Wood stock or Blenheim 

Pippin 

*White Juneting 
*Wellington Apple 
Wormsley Pippin 

* Wheeler's Russet 
Winter Pearmain 
Wyken Apple 
White Lilly 
Yorkshire Greening 

*Yellow Ingestry Pippin 



CIDER APPLES. 

Par. 73. As it is now become a question 
whether our old cider fruits are not going to 
decay from old age, it is necessary to say some- 
thing on the subject. 



54 CIDER APPLES. 

I have no doubt but many, where they have 
not had sufficient practice, will differ with me, 
but having for many years had thousands, and 
tens of thousands, continually under my imme- 
diate care and notice, it has given me an op- 
portunity of becoming thoroughly acquainted 
with the constitution of the apple tree ; and I 
am confident it is nothing but bad manage- 
ment and ill treatment which is the cause of the 
general decay of our apple trees, and principally, 
from want of proper attention to the canker, 
which is caused by the American blight. 
This is quite evident from all our new sorts 
becoming affected by it, as well as the Golden 
Pippin, and our other fine old cider fruits. 
To conclude, I am convinced so long ~s Eliglisn 
oak is known to flourish in England, so long 
by proper management, may our old Golden 
Pippins be known to flourish, as well as they 
did fifty years back ; I will therefore give a 
list of some of the esteemed old sorts, with a 
list of others which are now generally approved 
of for cider. 

Old Golden Pippin Wood Cock 

Fox Whelp Forest Stire 

Herefordshire Redstreak Old Queening 

Orange Pippin Bennet Apple 

Red Musk Friar 

Hagloe Crab Yellow Elliott 



CULTIVATION OF CIDER APPLES. 55 

NEW CIDER APPLES. 

Court of Wyck Pippin Kirke's Lord Nelson 

Foxley Apple Kirke's Seedling Golden 
Downton Pippin Pippin 

Stead's Kernel Franklin's Golden Pippin 

Cockagee Kirke's Golden Rennet 

If I were going to plant apples, purposely for 
cider, I should confine myself to a few sorts ; 
for if we have those sorts which are good, and 
good bearers, what can we wish more? I should 
therefore recommend the following : 

Court of Wyck Pippin Kirke's Lord Nelson 

Foxley Apple Kirke's Seedling Golden 

JJownton Pippin Pippin 

Cockagee Franklin's Golden Pippin 

The most favourite cider apple now in culti- 
vation is the cockagee ; I am informed by some 
of our principal cider merchants it is decidedly 
the best for bottleing, and will bring the 
greatest price ; therefore, as this apple is a good 
bearer, and a free grower, it would be the 
most profitable of any to plant for cider. 

Kirke's Lord Nelson, is not much known at 
present as a cider fruit, but this apple, which 
is a good bearer, produces a large quantity of 



56 PRODUCING NEW KINDS OF APPLES. 

fine astringent saccharine juice, and makes a 
most excellent cider to drink from the cask. 

List of apples from one to twelve sorts recom- 
mended for small gardens. 

p ar . 74._ 

1 Hawthorn Dean 7 Manks Codlm 

2 Ribston Pippin 8 Scarlet Nonpareil 

3 Kirke's Lord Nelson 9 Scarlet Pearmam 

4 Cristy's Pippin 10 Hick's Fancy 

5 Beauty of Kent 11 Woodstock Pippin 

6 Sykehouse 12 Court of Wyck Pippinr 

The above are all described in the explana- 
tory list, where the different seasons of ripen- 
ing, with the character of the apples, may be 
found. 

THE MODE OF PRODUCING NEW KINDS OF 
APPLES. 

Par. 75. It is a well known fact, not only 
among botanists, but all those who have paid 
attention to the culture of the vegetable 
tribe, that by improper management their sorts 
will degenerate; and this is caused, by such 
sorts being planted too near together, by 
which means they unite with each other. 

If you plant cabbages and potatoes, or cucum- 



PRODUCING NEW KINDS OF APPLES. 57 

bers and turnips near each other, or any thing of 
a different nature, they will not injure ; but if you 
plant cabbage and cauliflower, or savoy, or any 
thing of a similar nature, it will cause the most 
perfect sort to degenerate, if they are allowed to 
bloom together. The same is the case with ap- 
ples ; for, if various sorts are in the same garden 
blooming near each other, although you might 
save your seed from what appeared a very fine 
apple, you would not judge which was the 
male parent : in order to elucidate this par- 
ticular, I will endeavour to state as plainly as 
possible, the nature of the apple from its first 
formation, till it becomes perfect, and produces 
the ripe pip or seed. 

In the first place, when the bloom is quite 
open, the principal attraction is the leaves of the 
bloom, five in number; that which is called the 
corolla is below the flower, where the small 
green apple is formed, which continues to grow 
larger till it comes to perfection ; this is called 
the flower cup or calyx ; in the centre of the cup 
you see small yellow things which are called 
stiles, and below the stiles are to be seen several 
other very small things with round heads like 
pins, which are called stamens, and these pro- 
duce a fine dust called the Farina or Pollen, 
which is collected by the bees and other 
D 3 



58 PRODUCING NEW KINDS OF APPLES. 

insects, and which the former so industriously 
collect and lay up for their young, &c. 

Various have been the opinions on this sub- 
ject, but it is now become conclusive, that the 
bloom becomes impregnated with other varie- 
ties, through the bees and other insects ; indeed, 
most insects after they become winged, are 
fond of the sweets they can collect from flow- 
ers ; and although we have not so just an idea 
of many insects as we have of bees, yet I have 
no doubt, many of them take part in crossing 
the fruits and vegetables : but the bees may 
be seen flying to a great number of different 
flowers and trees, before they have a sufficient 
load to take home to their hive, and by thus 
flying from bloom to bloom, and tree to tree, 
they occasionally drop part of the Pollen into 
another flower, which causes it to be impreg- 
nated with the nature of the fruit or vegetable 
from which it was collected ; it therefore 
shows the necessity, if we wish to produce a 
new variety of any peculiar quality, to plant 
the trees where they will not be within a consi- 
derable distance of any other; for instance, 
suppose you wish to raise a new keeping apple, 
it will be necessary to chuse two good keep- 
ing apples, and if one were very sour, and the 
other sweet, it will have a great chance of 



DIFFERENT MODES OF GRAFTING. 59 

combining these two qualities, which are quite 
necessary to constitute a good apple ; or if you 
have a favourite early apple, and would wish to 
get one nearly like it that would keep, then 
plant by it a good keeping apple, and you 
will have a chance of getting one nearly like 
it, and probably much better. 

If your seedlings are at all strong, the best 
method, and most quick to prove them, is, the 
following spring after they have come up, to 
graft them on young fruit bearing trees ; it will 
bring them into bearing early, and by so doing, 
you likewise have an opportunity of noticing 
which are likely to become good bearers. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIFFERENT MODES OF 
GRAFTING. 

Par. 76. Various are the opinions respecting 
the influence the stock will have on the scion, 
or graft : many persons (for want of sufficient 
practice) to this day, suppose the stock will 
affect the scion, and consequently the fruit 
produced from the tree grafted on a stock 
whose fruit is different ; but during my prac- 
tice I never have known in any instance, the 
fruit to become altered through the stock it 
was grafted on : in order to illustrate this fact 



60 DIFFERENT MODES OF GRAFTING. 

as clearly as possible, I will give my general 
opinion on the subject. 

It is necessary sometimes to convey our 
ideas (particularly in writing where it is subject 
to every criticism) as plainly as possible ; I shall 
therefore commence from the seed of the stock. 

In the first place, when the seed first spears, 
(say the Crab) its spear grows downwards, (the 
same by a common bean or pea) perhaps two 
inches before we see the green seed leaf above 
ground, this shews that the fund of vegetable 
matter above ground, must be filtered through 
the root, for without the root the tree cannot 
grow, but the root might exist for some time, 
although the head was cut down ; I am there- 
fore most decidedly of opinioti, that the stock 
in some degree partakes of the nature of the 
scion which is grafted on it ; for if we look at 
the nature and constitution of a tree, and from 
practice mark its general progress, there can- 
not be an existing doubt, that the roots, veins, 
fibres, or whatever they may be called, which 
strike from the scion into the stock, must take 
root and run downwards, and that to the very 
extremity where the sap flows ; this I am fur- 
the convinced of by putting the graft on the 



DIFFERENT MODES OF GRAFTING. 61 

centre of the stock instead of the side, for you 
always find them make a considerably bet- 
ter growth, and the trees are more durable ; 
therefore, if the graft sends its roots down to 
the very extremities of the roots of the stock, 
if either becomes impregnated, it must be the 
stock and not the scion. 

The same by budding ; if nature had so or- 
dered it, that the stock should have had any 
influence on grafting, much more must it have 
had on budding, where there is nothing left 
but the mere rind ; yet this small bud has been 
in no instance ever known to degenerate on 
account of the stock, if budded on a stock 
it was fond of. 

What I mean by a bud being fond of a stock, 
is such stocks as buds and grafts are usually 
worked on ; this is one very necessary branch 
of a nurseryman's profession, wlien he has a 
new fruit, to endeavour to find out such stock 
as is best suited to its constitution, &c. 

I remember many years back, when quite a 
boy, a common white jasmine which was grow- 
ing against the house, and being fond even 
from my earliest years of trying experiments 
among trees, I took a bud from a striped jas- 



62 DIFFERENT MODES OF GRAFTING. 

mine, and budded a branch of the green ; the 
bud grew, and what shoots put forth below the 
bud, most of them became blotch leaved ; this 
is a proof the bud or graft must have an effect 
on the stock. 

There are other modes of grafting, but which 
are little noticed for fruit trees, except when the 
trees are very large, and as it will not be foreign 
to the present work I will mention them. 

First, rind grafting ; this is principally prac- 
tised on large trees. After cutting off the 
branch of the tree (if with a saw it should be 
made smooth with a knife) cut a slit in the 
rind, about two inches from the top where it 
was cut off, open the bark without bruising it, 
(the handle of a budding knife is the best in- 
strument) then cut a slice of your scion the 
length of the incision on the branch, nearly 
the same as described in whip-grafting ; run 
the scion down between the rind and the wood, 
placing the wood of the scion against the wood 
of the , stock, then bind it tight round with 
strong matting, and put clay round it the same 
as directed in whip-grafting ; when this me- 
thod of grafting was more in practice, many 
would make a shoulder in the scion, to rest it 
on the shoulder of the stock ; but this I think 



DIFFERENT MODES OF GRAFTING. 63 

unnecessary, as the two woods would not 
gender without the bark, and there would 
be no bark on the crown of the branch or 
stock: three or four scions may be put on one 
large crown; but this method of grafting is 
by no means to be recommended, for the winds 
are so apt to blow them out, and if the bodies of 
the trees were sound and worth grafting, and the 
branches too strong for whip -grafting, it would 
be far better to cut them down nearly to the 
stem of the tree, and the following year they 
would throw out fine young wood for whip- 
grafting, and rather than lose, you would save 
time by this practice ; I have whip-grafted with 
success, branches six and eight inches in cir- 
cumference. 

Grafting by approach, commonly called 
enarching ; this method is principally practised 
among exotics, consequently the fruit grower 
will not feel interested in its detail, particularly 
the apple grower, it being by no means neces- 
sary ; this practice is principally adopted 
where the scion and stocks w T ill not unite 
freely by whip-grafting. 



CHAPTER II. 

ON THE CANKER IN APPLE TREES. 

Introduction. 

Par. 77. The white blight, which is now 
but too well known among the apple trees in 
this country, is called by some versed in na- 
tural history Aphis Lanata, and by some Ame- 
rican blight, by others the French blight : but 
whether it is a native of America, or France, or 
either, I think is a matter of doubt ; in fact, 
all I have read on this subject have passed it 
over without any useful information ; but I 
have been informed by some of the established 
nurserymen near London, that it first made its 
appearance in this country in the nursery 
grounds of Mr. Swinton, of Chelsea, who, 
being curious in fruits, was in the habit occa- 



INSECT IN TREES IN THE NURSERY. 65 

sionally of importing apple trees in pots on 
Paradise stocks from France, and that it made 
its appearance first on them, the following sum- 
mer after they were imported; and during the 
same summer made its appearance in a nursery 
belonging to Mr. Grimwood, at Knightsbridge, 
being near to where Mr. Swinton then lived. 
This will not appear at all unlikely that it 
should make its appearance in a ground only a 
few hundred yards from each other, when the 
real nature of this insect is explained ; in fact, 
for a long period my ears have been open to 
every word that has been spoken on this subject, 
for having been in the habit of grafting several 
thousand apples annually, for many years past* 

it induced m to pay more than 01 diu<ay 

to this destructive i 



THE MANNER THE INSECT OPERATES O# THE 
TREES WHILE IN THE NURSERY. 

Par. 78. It very much puzzled me to 
account for the strange manner in which it 
operated during the progress of the trees, for 
the longer the trees remained on the ground 
the more they seemed to get the disease. I 
have often reflected with some anxiety, when 
thinking of the thousands of fine young trees 



66 INSECT IN TREES IN THE NURSERY, 

which have gone from my hands, that there 
could be no remedy against the canker ; for if 
you asked any one what they thought of it, their 
opinions were all at variance ; some would say 
it came with the east winds, others that it was a 
most extraordinary and unaccountable thing, but 
no one could give me any useful information. I 
was often surprised to find trees that had been 
grafted on fine clean stocks, and which continued 
so through the summer, and likewise towards 
the autumn, not a blemish was to be seen, ex- 
cepting a little white blight on the young 
shoots, would the following spring be getting 
cankered where the trees were grafted : on 
close examination, this was uniformly the 

* >"- - ^fj- . ,~~4- 4-V,^^-,-.r.V,1-.r 

case wnere tiit; gia.it was not t,uuiuugu^ 
healed ; and when once the "tree was attacked, 
it would generally get worse every year : in 
fact, it became so bad in some parts of the 
country, that many nurserymen gave up grow- 
ing apples altogether ; and from the destruc- 
tion with which they were threatened, it 
became quite disheartening to plant ; and had 
not the real cause been discovered, our apples, 
for which we are so celebrated, must eventually 
have gone to total ruin : a doctor may pre- 
scribe various things for a patient, but unless 
he is acquainted with the disorder, it is all 
chance about the effect ; but first find out the 



FIRST CHANGE OF THE INSECT. 67 

disorder, and then you have a chance of apply- 
ing a remedy with safety. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE FIRST CHANGE OF THE 
INSECT. 

Par. 79. I have discovered by the means 
of glasses, that some of these insects take wing 
like the small green fly, such as are seen on 
roses, &c. ; but those that become winged in 
this state turn to a very small black fly ; and 
if the weather is not very warm and favour- 
able, they will not survive ; but, if it continues 
warm and fine, they soon gain strength, and fly, 
and play together in swarms like gnats, in the 
a|r but they seeni to keep near their native 
spot, unless carried away suddenly by the wind. 
Those that take wing in this state, are the 
largest of the Aphis, which appear so helpless ; 
but there is another small insect, which is very 
diminutive, and which appears to stick to the 
large ones while they remain in the cotton-like 
web ; these are scarcely discernible without 
the microscope, but they are much more active 
on the legs, and soon grow larger ; when 
they leave the web, they crawl down to the 
ground, and remain just under the earth till 
they have gained sufficient strength to find out 
their winter's abode, during which season 



68 OF THE INSECT IN ANOTHER STAGE. 

they cause the canker, which will be hereafter 
described. 

FIRST DISCOVERY OF THE INSECT IN ANOTHER 
STAGE. 

Par. 80. I have often discovered during 
my practice among the apples, while removing 
the cankered parts of the trees (which I was uni- 
formly particular in doing) that a small maggot 
or grub was to be seen in the part affected, but 
I naturally concluded like others, more from 
custom, (certainly not reflection,) that it merely 
got there for shelter; but in June, 1822, by 
accident, rather assisted by curiosity, the whole 
mystery was disclosed. 

PARTICULAR OBSERVATIONS MADE IN 1822, 
OF THE INSECT WHICH CAUSES THE CAN- 
KER ITS BECOMING WINGED. 

Par. 81. It may be recollected by some of 
my readers that the summer of 1822 was a 
very fine one; and to that fine summer suc- 
ceeded a very mild winter ; in the month of 
June the white blight began to be very general. 
This, I observed, as I was going through an 
old apple quarter in the nursery which was 
intended to be cleared the following autumn ; 
and this quarter, which contained upwards of 
twenty thousand apple trees, were now reduced 



OF THE INSECT IN ANOTHER STAGE. 69 

to about eight thousand ; many of which, from 
the canker, and other causes were unsaleable ; 
but I observed those trees which were cankered, 
was generally where they had been grafted ; and 
during the time I was cutting them down I paid 
particular attention, as the white blight seemed 
to increase daily. In my progress I came to a 
tree of the Woodstock Pippin, which was al- 
most eaten through with the canker ; I cut it off 
below the graft, and felt rather surprised to see 
a thin brown shell (seven in number,) issuing 
from holes through the canker ; I could com- 
pare the bottom of this tree to nothing but a 
horse with a very bad greasy heel ; this I passed 
over, but still I thought it very extraordinary, 
and on reflection, was induced to examine 
more trees which had the canker, and having 
come to a tree which was very much eaten, I 
saw some shells like the above, and an insect 
which was just about to leave the shell, its 
head being quite out. I immediately cut it 
out, and was not a little surprised to see it had 
wings, and although it appeared quite motion- 
less, when touched it moved ; and when the 
chrysalis was removed from it, in a few 
seconds it began to move its wings, this I put 
on a leaf on the ground, from whence it soon 
took flight. I examined the tree further, when 
cutting away the canker, I further discovered 



70 OF THE INSECT IN ANOTHER STAGE. 

in the same spot two maggots or grubs, about 
half an inch long, of a whitish brown, and 
dark heads, and likewise concealed very safely 
between the rind and the wood, two insects in 
a chrysalis, rather a lighter colour than those 
from which the insects had flown, and I was 
convinced from what I knew of natural history, 
that these were all the same species of insect. 
I then began to think that what produced the 
canker, and the white blight, must be two 
distinct species of insect ; but standing reflect- 
ing on what I had seen, with a view to fur- 
ther examination, I observed a strange look- 
ing fly, about half an inch long to all appear- 
ance, fly very deliberately from tree to tree, 
I may say nearly twenty, and appeared to set- 
tle near the bottom, but its wings were scarcely 
quiet before it again took flight; and as it 
stopped at every tree it came to, I watched it 
very closely; at last it came to a tree which had 
the canker very bad just at the graft: this tree 
the fly took a fancy to, and having settled for 
about two or three seconds, it did the same at 
every knot it could find all up the stem ; after 
it had settled six or eight times (during which 
time it seemed very intent,) I knocked it down, 
and taking it in my hand, and it not being dead, 
I gave it a squeeze in the palm of my hand with 
my thumb to kill it, which caused it to dis- 



OF THE INSECT LAYING ITS EGGS. 71 

charge several eggs, which I distinctly saw; 
they were round and almost as small as dust, 
of a light brown colour, and very hard ; I then 
examined the fly, which was not dead, neither 
could I kill it till I pinched the head ; it was a 
venemous looking fly, with a shining black 
head, and two prominent eyes, with two horns 
full a quarter of an inch long, the body of the 
fly was also black ; it measured three-quarters 
of an inch from the head to the tail, and an 
inch from the tail to the end of the horns ; it 
looked venemous, and was very handsome. 

FIRST DISCOVERY OF THE INSECT LAYING ITS 
EGGS, WITH OTHER REMARKS. 

Par. 82. I next turned my attention to the 
tree where it had been so busy, and examined 
the spots where I saw it settle, and there I saw 
in three different places an egg, but one in par- 
ticular I saw distinctly, with a little mucus 
attached to it ; this induced me to mark the 
tree, and the spot where I saw the egg so dis- 
tinctly ; I continued to watch it almost daily for 
about three weeks, when I saw a spot of white 
exactly where the egg was laid, and in a few 
days it covered about as much space as would 
contain a sixpence ; this was rather in a hollow 
where a shoot had been cut off, and the bark 
had not quite healed over ; I allowed the insect 



72 FLIES TAKE SHELTER IN WET WEATHER. 

to remain, to watch its progress, which I did 
more narrowly than I ever did before, and 
found it subsisted on the bark of the tree, till it 
gained strength sufficient to leave the web, 
which several would do some days before the 
rest, and then crawl away imperceptibly, 
leaving the part where they had been, com- 
pletely blistered and up in lumps. 

FURTHER DESCRIPTION OF THE LARGE FLY IN 
ITS PERFECT STATE. 

Par. 83. Being thoroughly convinced it 
was all tbe same insect, I looked about 
among the apple trees, and saw several of these 
flies, but they flew and darted about so quick 
in the air, that it was a hard matter to knock 
them down, and very few were so large as the 
one before described : but later in the season, I 
found many as large ; the male does not ap- 
pear to be so large as the female, excepting 
the head, which is larger. 

WHERE THE FLIES TAKE SHELTER IN WET 
WEATHER 

p ar . 84. The part in this large quarter of 
apple trees where I found the flies most, was 
for about thirty yards where some Wych Elms 
were in the hedge, and which produce large 



OPERATIONS OF THE INSECT IN WINTER. 73 

leaves, and in wet weather the flies were to be 
found under them for shelter. 

THE MANNER THE INSECT OPERATES ON THE 
ROOTS IN WINTER. 

Par. 85. In the autumn I discovered many 
of the insects crawling about the ground ; they 
would enter the cavities close to the apple 
roots, that are caused by the wind blowing the 
trees backwards and forwards : at this sea- 
son, I have no doubt the insect is sufficiently 
sensible that the approaching cold season will 
not admit of her young surviving through the 
winter on the trees, and consequently makes its 
way to the roots for warmth ; for in the winter 
season, I have often found the insect in its white 
state on the roots under ground; but these 
always appear very small and weakly, compared 
to those in warm summer weather, and the fly 
appears to have great strength for its size, as I 
have seen it force its way into the earth ; in a 
most astonishing manner; but this singula r 
insect, the large fly, I have brought to its per- 
fect winged state, in a glass, .since I wrote the 
foregoing pages, which I now have by me, and 
likewise the piece of the tree where it had formed 
itself into a chrysalis ; I kept the fly alive nine 
days. 



74 SECOND CHANGE OF THE INSECT. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE FIRST CHANGE OF THE 
VERY SMALL INSECT, ALLUDED TO IN PARA^ 
GRAPH THE SEVENTY-NINTH, WHICH CAUSES 
THE CANKER, AND BECOMES THE LARGE FLY. 

Par. 86. Those versed in natural history, 
describe moths and all winged insects, to 
have various changes before they become 
winged, which is the last stage of their ex- 
istence ; and I shall now state as plainly as 
possible the manner in which this insect goes 
through its different changes : it first enters a 
crevice in the apple tree, where it begins to feed 
on the inner rind, and the outside skin of the. 
insect becomes a sort of dead substance, and 
the inside contains a very small maggot or grub, 
with a black head, which it puts out at one end 
for food ; the dry skin is retained most probably 
to keep it from the inclemency of the weather : 
its colour is nearly the colour of the bark df 
the tree, which makes it in this state almost 
imperceptible ; but during the winter, this small 
worm makes its way under the rind of the trees, 
and there hangs by its head, feeding on the 
juices of the rind. 

SECOND CHANGE OF THE INSECT. 

Par. 87. When they have cast this skin, 
(which is quite tough, but as thin as possible,) 



INSECT BECOMING WINGED. 75 

it begins to eat under the bark ; and in this 
stage it commits the greatest depredations, and 
soon becomes a good sized maggot. I am 
inclined to think from my discoveries this sea- 
son, that the cold weather does not much affect 
them; for although we had much severe 
weather, from Christmas, 1822, to March, 1823, 
in the latter month, when I came to examine the 
trees where they were cankered, I found 
several which, had left the skin quite lively, and 
could see where they had been recently feed- 
ing ; and others with their heads just coming 
out of the skin ; they adhere by their head to 
the tree, and if you remove them gently, they 
hang by a web to keep themselves from falling, 
and unless you examine them, you would sup- 
pose them nothing more than small morsels 
of dead leaf or bark. 

THE THIRD CHANGE OF THE INSECT, AND ITS 
BECOMING WINGED. 

Par. 88. The maggot, having grown to the 
size of about two-thirds of an inch, looks out for 
a convenient place in the tree, and after discharg- 
ing a quantity of excrement, it forms itself into 
a chrysalis, and remains torpid for'some time, 
when it quits the chrysalis, or shell; it then 
becomes the winged fly, and commences breed- 
ing as before described, after which it dies. 

E-2 



76 REMARKS RESPECTING OTHER INSECTS, 
FURTHER OBSERVATIONS, 

, Par. 89. Now, I find from my further obser- 
vations this spring, that many of the chrysalis 
turn into flies quite early, as I have found them 
in April on a warm day, and in their first state 
they appear black. I have examined a great 
many trees this spring, where the canker ap- 
peared, and there found the insect, in its larva 
state, of different sizes, and while in this state 
like a small slender maggot ; when you cut to 
the spot where they are concealed they throw 
themselves about in a violent manner, and will 
frequently drop down hanging by a web. 


REMARKS RESPECTING OTHER INSECTS, 

Par. 90. To speak of ^11 the insects which 
infest the vegetable tribe, is impossible, (at 
least I will leave it to entomologists) for, I be- 
lieve it to be beyond the comprehension of 
human understanding, to follow the myriads of 
insects through their various changes, many of 
which, would be as difficult to discover as the 
apple-fly, which has been so many years tried 
at ; but, as they do not appear of that conse- 
quence, they have not received that share of 
pains and trouble, at least, as far as regards 
myself: at the same time, I will give a brief 
description of a few> which have come under 
my notice^ to shew that there are others which 



REMARKS ON BUTTERFLIES. 

pass through nearly the same changes as the 
apple-fly. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SMALL BROWN CHAFER, 
WHICH IS SO INJURIOUS IN NURSERIES, &C. 

Par. 91. The first I will mention is a small 
brown chafer, which is well known to nursery- 
men, particularly about London ; this chafer, 
like other chafers, is fond of laying its eggs 
under ground, close to a tree for protection ; 
they hatch early in spring, and become a small 
brown maggot ; it is a very great enemy to 
the apricot and other buds ; for early in the 
spring, when the insect comes to life, it crawls 
up the stem, and forms a sort of web for its 
protection beside the bud ; and when the young 
bud of the apricot puts forth, this insect wiU 
get into it and eat it off, and sometimes eat it 
completely out; the consequence is, if they 
shoot again, it is with twin shoots, and fre- 
quently so late that the trees do not grow near 
so strong. This insect, like the apple-fly, after- 
wards turns into the small winged chafer, as 
before described ; but there is another cater- 
pillar or maggot, which is very injurious to buds 
in spring, it turns to a brown moth. 

REMARKS ON BUTTERFLIES. 

Par. 92. From the accounts I have read 



78 DESCRIPTION OF THE SILK-WORM, 

in natural history, together with my own 
observations, I find, the different sorts of but- 
terfly go through similar changes, but at va- 
rious periods, and each different butterfly dif- 
fers equally in its caterpillar state : there are 
smooth caterpillars of different colours and 
sizes, and some beautiful and hairy ; likewise, 
they vary in the different sorts of food they 
choose, but they all in their different seasons 
become winged. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE SILK WORM. 

Par. 93. The silk- worm goes through 
nearly the same changes, but at a different 
season to the last named ; the egg is hatched 
about the month of April or May, and then 
remains in the caterpillar or worm state till 
about July ; during this time it will consume a 
considerable portion of food if you give it what 
is fond of mulberry leaves are its greatest 
favourite ; it will then change into a pupa, 
which is more hard than the larva or worm ; 
in this state it remains some time, and having 
produced silk, it then turns to a moth, and 
after laying its eggs it very shortly dies. 

THE REASON FOR INTRODUCING THE ABOVE 
INSECTS. 

Par. 94. I would give a description of a con- 



REASONS. 79 

siderable number of other insects, but as this is 
a work not intended for that purpose it would 
only cause confusion. What I have already said, 
is merely to show to those wholly unacquainted 
with the various changes the insects go through, 
that the apple-fly is by no means extraordi- 
nary, when we look at the different changes of 
all these wonderful insects ; in fact, it is said 
by some naturalists, that many of those grubs 
which we find underground, go through four or 
five different changes before they become 
winged. 

THE REASON FOR BRINGING OUT THE COMPO- 
SITION TO PREVENT THE CANKER, &C. 

Par. 95. I now feel it but just to state to 
my readers, that having completed my experi- 
ments, and found them to answer my most san- 
guine expectations, I made bold to write to the 
Earl of Liverpool, offering the discovery to 
government; but on a subsequent interview 
with T. Brooksbank, Esq. at Fife House, (his 
lordship's secretary,) he said, before government 
could notice it, it would be necessary to have 
strong proofs of its utility from the public. I 
therefore prepared a quantity of the composi- 
tion, and made it up in packets at one shilling, 
one shilling and ninepence, and five shillings 
each, thereby giving every one, at a trifling ex- 



80AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF THE COMPOSITION. 

pence, the opportunity of a fair trial on their 
own trees ; this has had the desired effect, as a 
great quantity has already been sold, and a 
number of persons owning public nurseries and 
private gardens have become satisfied of its 
efficacy ; through which the demand is greatly 
increasing. 

THE TOWN AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF THE 
COMPOSITION. 

Par. 96.- It is sold under the title of the 
Chelsea Apple Powder, and may be had at the 
following London agents ; Messrs. Girmley and 
Co. Covent Garden Market, Messrs. Wood- 
man and Seekers, No. 18, Piccadilly, corner 
of Air Street, and Messrs. John Hunt and Sons, 
Seedsmen, No. 53, High Street, Borough, and 
at the Manufactory, No. 9, Francis Street, 
Chelsea Common, Middlesex. 



LABEL. 



81 



FORM OF LABEL PASTED ON EACH PACKET. 

Par. 97. The following is the form of the 
label pasted on the packets. 

TO 
PREVENT AND CURE THE CANKER 

IN 

APPLE TREES, 

CAUSED BY THE 

American Blight. 



THE 



This valuable Composi- 
tion, with little trouble, 
will effectually prevent 
the Canker in sound 
Tiees, afford peculiar 
Nourishment, and make 
a perfect Cure of Canker- 
ed Trees, not past re- 
covery; it will remain 
on the Trees till it has 
had the desired effect, 
cause the wounded 
PI aces to heal, produce 
a fine clear Bark, and 
retain its Virtues in any 
Climate. 



CHEZiSEA 

APPLE 

Powder. 



PIIEP.ARED AND SOLD AT 

No. 9, 
FRANCIS STREET, 

Chelsea Common, 

MIDDLESEX. 



Direction* for Use. 

When the Trees are 
quite dry, put the Com- 
position in an open 
Vessel, add as much 
Water as will make it 
the substance of Pain', 
then, with a Brush, 
apply it all over the 
Stem, quite to the bot- 
tom, and a little under 
groand ; if unplanted, 
apply it to the princi- 
pal Roots, likewise the 
main Branches from the 
Stem; where the Trees 
are much Cankered, it 
should be first cut out, 
then use the Mixture 
thoroughly to those 
Places, and the Trees 
will become healthy and 
flourishing. 



CAUTION NOT TO USE IMPROPER THINGS. 

Par. 98.- -The remedy I have now introduced 
E 3 



82 DIFFICULTY IN CONVINCING. 

although simple, will require some care in its 
application, to mind it is applied thoroughly as 
directed on the packets, for I have the satis- 
faction to state, it may be used over the bloom 
buds in March, or the most tender shoots in 
summer: it is the only effectual cure for 
this disease ever discovered, that is not in- 
jurious to the trees. Oils were at one time 
much used for it, but they were found too 
powerful ; indeed, I have destroyed many 
young apple trees by applying sweet oil. Coal 
tar has also been lately introduced, but that 
can only be used to old wounds, and then it 
makes a bad smell, and leaves the trees in 
half mourning; it is a most dangerous thing 
to apply to young trees, as I have seen trees 
twenty years old destroyed with it, down to the 
very roots, but this has been when applied all 
over the principal part of the tree. 

THE DIFFICULTY ^IN CONVINCING. 

Par. 99. I am aware of the difficulties aris- 
ing in persuading men against their own in- 
clination, on what they are not personally 
acquainted with : for in almost every separate 
county in England, they have different ways 
of farming, and each supports its own opinions ; 
and this notwithstanding the wide dissemi- 
nation of new and acknowledged improvements. 



USEFUL REMARKS. 83 

But although this is the case among agricul- 
turists, it is carried to a far greater extent by 
horticulturists ; it would be an extraordinary 
thing indeed, for one gardener to prune and 
manage a tree to please another. At the same 
time, although they may differ much in their 
opinions, they may produce equally fine fruit, 
and keep their trees in equally good order. 

But the subject before us, is of such great 
national importance, that every one must feel 
interested in it, who is fond of horticultural 
pursuits. The remedy is so very plain and 
easy, I think I need not recite my experiments, 
to convince the public of its efficacy. Never- 
theless, I will give as much explicit informa- 
tion on the subject, as my memory, together 
with my memorandums, will furnish me with. 

SOME USEFUL REMARKS. 

Par. 100. I must beg first of all, to make 
this impression on the minds of my readers, to 
prevent any misunderstanding ; that is, that 
the powder is intended as a remedy for the 
canker : and although I have said it may be 
used on the most tender shoots in summer, yet 
be it understood, although it is necessary to use 
every means to check it when we see it raging 
in its white state, yet my object is, to preserve 



84 TO PREVENT CANKER IN MAIN STEM. 

the main stem and branches from the canker : 
this it will effect, and keep them free from 
moss, and other diseases, by applying the com- 
position as it is directed, once in about two 
years. I have made the foregoing observa- 
tions, to prevent any mistaken idea, of apply- 
ing it to a tree, which is probably smothered 
with the insect in summer, and perhaps 
not half the eggs hatched. Wherever the 
brush should pass by, they will of course come 
to life, and there remain till they are suffi- 
ciently strong to leave the cotton-like web, 
when they instantly crawl to the ground, and 
finding the principal part of the tree not fit 
food for them, they will be sure to leave it, 
and will not deposit their eggs there again : 
indeed, I would undertake^ if twenty thousand 
clean standard apple trees were planted on 
good soil, and treated as will be hereafter 
described, that they should be as sound in fifty 
years hence as when first planted ; but the se- 
lection of clear trees ought not to be unnoticed, 
particularly where large orchards are planted. 

TO PREVENT THE CANKER IN THE MAIN STEM, 
&C. THE MOST NECESSARY. 

Par. 101. To prevent the canker in the 
main stem must be allowed by all to be the 
most necessary to keep the tree in good bodily 



HOW TO APPLY THE COMPOSITION. 85 

health ; for it is of little use to keep the tops 
of our trees clear, if we allow the body to be 
eaten up and killed by piecemeal ; therefore, 
as I have before observed, when the insect 
changes into the small maggot, which some of 
the early ones do in the autumn, it then finds 
out its place of residence for the winter, and 
the spots generally fancied are those which have 
given harbour to previous generations, till from 
year to year they so eat away the tree, that we 
often see large trees almost eaten through the 
body. 

HOW TO APPLY THE COMPOSITION TO YOUNG 
STANDARD TREES. 

Par 102. I shall first give directions how 
to apply the composition to young standard 
trees which are sound. When the trees are 
dry, put the composition in an open vessel, 
add as much water as will make it about the 
consistence paint is generally * used : when 
mixed thoroughly together, take a brush (a sort 
of painter's brush would do) and apply the 
mixture up the stem, and likewise to the lead- 
ing branches, and if a crack should appear, be 
sure do not let the brush pass by, but give that 
an extra quantity. If the trees are unplanted, I 
should strongly recommend applying it to the 
principal roots with the brush, or if your ves- 



86 HOW TO APPLY THE COMPOSITION. 

sel were large enough, after the roots were 
pruned, dip the whole of the root into it, and 
the insect would never after get to the roots. 

Why I recommend this is, because the in- 
sects frequently lay in the roots when they do 
not appear on the heads ; and as there is not 
a nursery round London, and I believe scarcely 
one in England, but what is now very badly 
infested with this insect, (although at the plant- 
ing season, it is not much to be seen) it is highly 
necessary that every one who plants, should use 
his utmost endeavours to prevent this disease, 
or he had better at once give his money away 
than lay it out for apple trees, which would 
only stand and -annoy their owners, without 
any source of profit or pleasure ; I should 
recommend the application of the mixture to 
the stem, and leading shoots from the stem, 
about March on sound trees, and it will destroy 
the eggs of various other insects, at the same 
time, just as they are about to hatch. It may 
be applied wherever the insect makes its ap- 
pearance, at all seasons, for which purpose the 
composition should be always kept in reserve. 

As the insect is very apt to work its way into 
the tree where the branches leave the main 
stem, this part should be well brushed, and as 



HOW TO APPLY THE COMPOSITION. 87 

far up the limbs as you can conveniently 
reach, and by keeping the trees clear that 
height, you will ensure their being healthy 
and flourishing ; for it is a very rare thing to see 
a tree cankered, to injure it in the head, unless 
it is first cankered in or near the body ; and 
there appears to be a great degree of sagacity 
about these insects, for they always attack 
those trees, by far the most, which are cankered, 
and pass by those which are healthy, as if they 
were aware they should not be disturbed. 

HOW TO APPLY THE COMPOSITION TO OLD 
STANDARD CANKERED APPLE TREES. 

Par. 103. The next thing we will attend to 
is the old standard trees : now instead of a 
preventive, we want a cure, for there are but 
few old trees to be found without the disease : 
the operation these trees have to go through, I 
should advise to be left till after Christmas, as 
you would then destroy the insects which are 
in the trees, and consequently prevent their 
next brood. 

In the first place, cut out the canker clean, 
(in which you will soon discover plenty of these 
small maggots) for where the trees are very 
bad you would not be able to get the solution 
thoroughly into the parts affected, without first 



88 HOW TO APPLY THE COMPOSITION. 

cutting away the canker ; this should be done 
as far as the tree is at all blemished, till you 
come all round to sound bark, otherwise it will 
not heal well and such trees as have moss 
on the stems should be thoroughly cleaned 
before the mixture is applied ; for this not only 
fedtfs on the tree itself, but is a complete har- 
boui^for insects. The heads of the trees should 
be pruned, taking away all limbs that are 
cankered, unless you cut the canker out, and 
likewise all branches which are superfluous ; 
then apply the mixture thoroughly in all parts 
you can as before described ; and wherever 
a small crack appears in the bark, be sure 
not to forget an extra portion, for there is 
almost sure to be a maggot ; also well brush 
the parts where the cankef is taken out, and it 
will so change the flavour, the insect will never 
attack those places again : should the trees be 
very bad, you may add a small portion of oil, 
about a table-spoonful to a one shilling packet, 
and so in proportion to the larger packets. 
Why I recommend oil in this case, is be- 
cause it will convey the mixture into the cavi- 
ties, for if you spill oil on the floor, it will soon 
cover a much larger space than where it first 
fell, and the quantity recommended will not 
injure ; but this addition will be quite unne- 
cessary on clean trees, as the composition used 



DECAYED TREES TO BE DESTROYED. 89 

as directed on the labels, will so change the 
flavour of the outer rind, that the insect will 
not attack it. 

TREES PAST RECOVERY RECOMMENDED TO BE 
DESTROYED. 

Par. 104. Where trees are so much eaten 
as I have seen some, that the main wood as 
well as the bark is decayed, I should recom- 
mend such trees to be destroyed, for they are 
only an incumbrance to the ground ; and 
although they may bear fruit, they are more 
loss than profit, for the trees have not strength 
to produce good fruit. 

I last season took notice of a fine young 
standard Scarlet Pearmain about ten years old, 
full of fruit, which was very fine, excepting one 
branch, and on that the fruit was small, 
dwindling, and almost tasteless, with scarcely 
any juice ; on examination, I found that limb, 
very near the body of the tree, almost eaten 
through with the insects, and so much was the 
fruit altered in its' appearance, that I supposed 
it was another sort of apple on the tree ; there- 
fore, this is a proof how it must change the 
flavour of our cider, as well as the fruit for 
all other purposes. 



iO HOW TO APPLY THE POWDER. 

HOW TO APPLY THE CHELSEA APPLE POWDEK 
TO DWARF TREES, WITH FURTHER PROOFS 
OF ITS UTILITY. 

Par. 105. We must now notice the dwarfs- 
These trees pruned as described under the head 
of pruning, may easily be kept entirely free 
from the insect, and consequently canker, by 
the following treatment : the trees having at- 
tained the height you wish, use the mixture all 
up the main branches, but be sure to use it 
thoroughly round the branches near the stem ; 
it also may be used over the bloom buds, 
just before the buds burst. If this is done 
thoroughly and with care, so as not to pass 
over any cracks or holes, the trees may be 
insured against canker with perfect safety. I 
have had this summer, together with many of 
my friends, an opportunity of witnessing the 
good effects of the Chelsea Apple Powder in 
this instance, on some apple trees in the garden 
of Mr. Jones, Old Brompton, Middlesex. He 
having some trees which were very bad with the 
disease, intended throwing them away, and two 
in particular which stood near together : I told 
him they would recover if he used the compo- 
sition ; he said he would try it, and by way of 
experiment on the worst of the two, which 
was one mass of corruption, from the root to 



ON TRAINED TREES. . 91 

the extremities of the shoots ; the tree, after 
cutting away the worst places with the knife, 
was dressed all over with the composition : 
this was done early in March; it had the 
effect of completely destroying the insect, 
caused it to throw out vigorous shoots, and 
every bloom bud that was left on the tree pro- 
duced fine fruit, without the appearance of a 
maggot, or any other insect, about the tree ; 
while the tree which stood by it, was early in 
June, as white as a sheet with the insect, and 
nearly every shoot and bloom bud curled up 
with a small maggot. Mr. Jones left them 
standing during the summer in this state, for 
any one, who might be so inclined, to see the 
contrast; this exhibition has been productive 
of both astonishment and conviction ; and will 
no doubt continue so to operate on all who 
may yet visit the scene. 

I could mention many other circumstances, 
but none could be more conclusive than the 
above, to shew the composition's powerful 
effects without the least injury even to the 
tender bloom buds. 

WHAT MAY RELATE TO TRAINED TREES, &C. 

Par. 106. Trained apples. From what has 
already been said, my readers may judge of 



92 OBSERVATIONS. 

all other ordinary cases, such as may relate to 
trained apples, &c., which therefore it is not 
necessary to particularise. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

Par. 107. Having given a copious account 
of this destructive insect, with a remedy, which 
I know to be safe, and the best my judgment 
could dictate, I must now leave it (and I do 
with confidence) in the hands of a generous 
public for support. 

The great improvements making throughout 
the country in the present day, particularly in 
horticulture, aided as they are by the first people 
in the land, will evidently^ reflect great honour 
on the country ; and should I, as an humble 
individual, be the means of laying the founda- 
tion for once more seeing our apple orchards 
flourishing, my ends will be answered. 

I am aware from this insect breeding in the 
prolific manner it does, that unless it were to 
come under government authority, there would 
be no chance of effectually eradicating it from 
the country, yet I am convinced, under this 
systeni of management, trees are to be kept 
perfectly sound and flourishing : why, I say it 
is not likely to be eradicated, unless it is takeu 



OBSERVATIONS. 93 

in hand by government, is, because we are not 
all of one opinion ; s.ome laugh at the idea of dis- 
coveries, and say, " I will follow the old school," 
while others will despise them for their apparent 
absurdity : however, time proves all things, and 
the mortification our neighbours would feel in 
having their trees eaten up by the canker, while 
ours were healthy and flourishing, would be 
perhaps the most effectual way of producing 
conviction, and thereby bringing the compo- 
sition into general use ; for the fly, finding our 
trees not in a fit state for its young, would natu- 
rally visit those of our neighbours, who were 
inclined by obstinacy to protect them. 

As this insect has not been known in this 
country above thirty years, and probably not 
more than two or three flies of each sex in their 
larva or maggot state first imported, it shews 
with what facility it breeds ; for there is not a 
county in England but what is troubled with 
this insect ; in fact, so alarmingly so, that few 
gentlemen will plant on a large scale, knowing, 
that when the trees ought to be turning to 
profit, they are going to decay; the effect of 
which is already greatly felt by our agricul- 
turalists, whose apples , having grown on dis- 
eased trees will not keep, and consequently, 
for some years past, our London markets have 



94 OBSERVATIONS. 

been principally supplied with foreign apples 
all through the Spring, at a season when the 
price would be of such signal advantage to our 
farmers ; in fact, I have been told by respec- 
table salesmen, that a great many thousand 
pounds worth of French apples is brought into 
Covent-garden market every Spring, and the 
quantity every year increases ; this is the more 
afflicting, when I know that by proper manage- 
ment, there is no article at this time the land 
could be cropped with on a large scale, which 
would tend to a greater source of profit ; and 
as the interest equally affects the land owner 
and the occupier, their united exertions ought 
not to fail in endeavouring to annihilate this 
disease. 

Although it has been thought by some 
nurserymen in the neighbourhood of London, 
that the introduction of the Chelsea Apple 
Powder would be a great injury to that branch 
of the profession, I am confident they have 
taken a wrong view of the subject, for instead 
of diminishing, I am sure it would cause a much 
greater demand for apple trees. 

For some years past, dwarf apple trees have 
been highly recommended as not being so sub- 
ject to the canker ; but those trees in various 



OBSERVATIONS. 95 

places, to my knowledge, are equally subject 
to the disease as they become aged, and con- 
sequently, in time people would become tired 
of planting altogether. 

/ * 

Before I finish my observations, I must ask 

my readers what we should lose by the total 
loss of our apples : First, the loss of one of the 
finest productions of our country, the cider, 
for which we are so celebrated. 

Secondly, we lose the dessert which this 
fruit provides, at seasons when we can scarcely 
have any other of our own produce. And 
lastly, we lose the pudding and pye, which we 
cannot conveniently procure at all seasons from 
other fruit, which is from the tart on the King's 
table, to the dumpling made for the peasant'^ 
child, of universal service, as well as a luxury. 



96 OK PEARS. 



CHAPTER III. 



On Pears, Plums, Cherries, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, 
Grape Vines, $*c. fyc. 

ON PEARS. 

Par. 108. What has already been said on the 
culture of apples, will generally apply to pears ; 
the budding, grafting, pruning, and general 
management being the same, excepting that 
they are worked on different stocks. The stock 
which is generally used, (and which is decidedly 
the best for standard pear trees,) is raised from 
the seed of the small wild pear, which like the 
true crab is more durable than those grown from 
other pears. It has many years been the prac- 
tice in France, and several parts of the Con- 
tinent, to graft pears on quince stocks, and in 
this country they have been found to answer 
extremely well as dwarfs, for they come into 
bearing much earlier than those on the pear 



ON PEARS. 97 

stock, and the fruit exceedingly fine, and by 
keeping them spurred like dwarf apple trees, 
they may be kept within any compass you wish, 
as they do not grow near so strong as those on 
the pear stock. 

Many sorts of pears, which are generally 
grown against walls, have got the name of bad 
bearers through bad pruning, it being a gene- 
ral method to spur them all indiscriminately ; 
at the same time, some sorts scarcely ever 
bloom except at the extremities of the young 
shoots, therefore, if they are removed it is im- 
possible to have fruit : from the above cause, 
I have seen standard Gansell's Burgamots in the 
natural ground, with a fine crop of fruit, 
while those against the wall have scarcely had 
any excepting at the extremities. 

This may be easily remedied, when you have 
discovered which sorts bear at the ends of the 
shoots, by leaving a sufficient quantity of young 
wood for that purpose. 

The confusion in the names of pears is quite 
equal to the apples ; I shall therefore confine 
myself in the explanatory list of pears which 
follows, to such sorts as are known to be good ; 
and such as are sufficient for all purposes. 



98 LIST OF PEARS. 

EXPLANATORY LIST OF PEARS. 

Par. 109. 1. Green Chisel; this is a small 
green pear, very full of juice, and is remarkably 
sweet ; it will ripen in early seasons in July. 

2. Red Muscadelle ; is an early pear, large 
and handsome, of a yellow colour, and next 
the sun rather red ; the flavour is very rich and 
fine ; it is ripe about the end of July, and will 
frequently produce a second crop in the Au- 
tumn. 

3. Jargonelle ; this is a fine early pear, ripe 
about August ; it is of a green colour with a little 
russet next the sun, it generally bears well. 

! 

4. Windsor Pear ; this is a very fine fruit if 
eaten in proper season ; it is of a green colour, 
but when quite ripe turns yellow ; it should be 
eaten just as it begins to change colour, or it 
will soon become mealy and good for nothing ; 

it ripens about the end of August. 

^ 

5. Hambden Burgamot; this is rather a 
large pear, fine melting flesh and full of juice ; 
it is ripe about the end of September. 

6. Autumn Burgamot ; this pear, which is o* 
rather a small size, and handsomely formed, is 



LIST OF PEARS, 99 

one of the finest flavoured melting pears in 
cultivation ; it is in perfection in October. 

\ 

7. Crasanne; this is a very fine pear for the 

wall ; the flesh is very tender, and full of fine 
sweet juice ; I know not so good a pear in 
December and the beginning of January. 

8. Colmar, is a fine rich sweet pear; it is best 
adapted for the wall, being a bad bearer as 
a standard ; it is in perfection about January. 

9.. Virgoleuse ; this is a fine melting pear, 
full of rich juice; it would be more generally 
cultivated, but in wet seasons they are very apt 
to crack ; it ripens about the end of December. 

10, St. Germain ; this is a very fine melting 
pear, full of juice and a general bearer ; an east 
wall will bring the fruit to the greatest perfec- 
tion ; at the same time, they will do well as 
standards in sheltered situations; they are 
ready for the dessert in December, and I have 
eaten them in March, 

1 1 . Spanish Bonchretien ; this is a good win- 
ter pear, and rather generally admired ; it grows 
large against a wall, and will keep till January. 

F 2 



100 LIST OF PEARS. 

12. Brown Beurre; this is one of the best 
late Autumn pears we have ; they do best 
against a wall, where they will grow large, of 
a brown colour, and rather tinged with red ; it 
is a fine juicy melter; and is in perfection 
through November. 

13. Winter Bonchretien; this is highly es- 
teemed for its long keeping ; it is very large, full 
of rich juice, and will keep till June. 

14. Chaumontelle ; this is a fine rich juicy 
pear ; is a great bearer either as a dwarf or 
standard, and will come into eating in December. 

15. Poire D'Auch ; this is a handsome green 
pear of excellent flavour ; is a good bearer, and 
I may add, there are but few winter pears which 
equal it; it is fine from December to the end 
of March : it is best suited for the wall. 

16. Citron D'Carlmes ; this is rather a small 
pear of a greenish colour, it is a great bearer, 
and is ripe in July. 

17. Williams's Bonchretien; this is a very 
juicy fine pear ; is a good bearer, and ripens 
about September. 



LIST OF PEARS. 101 

18. Swan's Egg; this pear is too generally 
known to require much comment ; it is of an 
egg shape, and of a brownish green colour ; it is 
a melting pear, full of very fine flavoured juice, 
and one of the greatest bearers in cultivation; it 
is ripe in November, and is good at Christmas, 

19. Paddington or Tarling; this pear is much 
esteemed for its long keeping ; it is a handsome 
fruit of a yellowish colour when ripe ; it is good 
from March till the end of May best suited 
for the wall. 

20. Golden Buerre ; this is a fine fruit, full 
of very fine juice with melting flesh; it is in 
perfection about November, and is a general 
bearer against a wall. 

21. Bishop's Thumb ; this pear will do well 
for wall or standards ; it is a long brown fruit, 
large towards the eye, and tapering towards 
the stalk ; it is a great bearer, and is good in 
December. 

22. Gansell's Burgamot; this pear for its 
rich melting flesh, and abundance of fine fla- 
voured juice, is decidedly the finest pear of its 
season ; it is rather a shy bearer, but will do best 
against a wall ; I have often seen fine crops 



102 LIST OF PEARS. 

on standards; it is in high perfection in 
November. 

23. Cardiliac; this is a large pear generally 
used for baking, and if they can be gathered 
sound late in the Autumn, they will be good 
for that purpose through the winter ; it is a good 
bearer, but being generally cultivated as stan- 
dards, and the fruit growing so large, the high 
winds are very apt to shake them off. 

24. Seckle ; this pear among the new varie- 
ties is very much esteemed; it is of a middling 
size, full of very fine sweet juice, and will bear 
well as standards, is in eating about October. 

25. Maria Louisa; this is a very fine pear; 
the flesh is melting and full of fine juice ; the 
wood is weeping and best adapted for the wall : 
at the present day it is esteemed as highly as 
any of the new varieties, and will no doubt be 
generally cultivated. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PEARS. 

Those marked with an Asterisk(*) are described in the explanatory 

List. 

Par. 110. 

Ashton Town Awken 

* Autumn Burgamot Beurre De Roi 



PLUMS. 



103 



*Bishop's Thumb 

Bloody 

Britannia 

Brocas Burgamot 
*Brown Beurre 

Burdelieu 
*Cardiiiac 

Catherine 
*Chaumontelle 
*Colmar 

Colmar D. Pache 
*Cresanne 

* Citron De Carlmes 
Dauphine 

*D'Auch or Poire D' Audi 
Delicis Lardenpont 
Dutch Burgamot 
*GanselPs Burgamot 
Germain Muscal 

^Golden Beurre 
Gray Beurre 

* Green Chisel 
*Hambden Burgamot 

Holland Burgamot 



^Jargonelle 

Lammas 

La Pastorelle 

Little Muscat 
*Maria Louisa 

Moorfowl Egg 

Napoleon 

Orange Burgamot 
*Paddington or Tarling 

Quos Madam 
*Red Muscadelle 
*Seckle2 

* Spanish Bonchretien 
*St. Germain 

Summer Burgamot 
* Swan's Egg 
*Uveders St. Germain 
*Vanmons 

Vergoleuse 

Vine Pear 

Williams' Bonchretien 
*Windsor 

*Winter Bonchretien 

WinterRusselet 



PLUMS. 



Par. Ill . We have not to complain so much 
of the coming of names for plums, as for apples 
and pears : nevertheless, a confused nomencla- 
ture has found its way among them ; however, 
I trust what I shall mention in the explanatory 



104 PLUMS. 

list will be so clearly described, that every 
person will be satisfied of his competency to 
decide on each particular sort when he sees 
the fruit ; and more especially as plums cannot 
be so easily mistaken, because the soils or 
situation will not have the same effect in 
changing their character, as they have on some 
other fruits. 

EXPLANATORY LIST OF PLUMS. 

Par. 112. Orleans; this plum is a fine large 
rich fruit, it is a great bearer, and good for all 
purposes. 

2. Fotheringham, is a very good plum ; it is 
of a dark red colour, of excellent flavour, and 
is a tolerable bearer. 

3. Blue Perdigron ; this plum is of a very 
dark blue colour, is good flavoured, and ripens 
in August. 

4. White Bonum Magnum, or Egg Plum ; 
this is a very great bearer, the fruit is large, in 
the form of an egg, and very handsome ; it is 
not a bad eating plum, though it is principally 
used for baking ; it ripens in September. 

5. Red Bonum Magnum, or Red Imperial ; 



PLUMS. 105 

this is a large red plum in the form of an egg, 

is a good bearer, but like the white, it is princi- 
pally used for culinary purposes; it ripens 
early in October. 

6. La Royale ; is a very fine flavoured plum 
of a red colour ; this being rather tender in the 
bloom, it succeeds best against a west wall ; it 
ripens late in September. 

7. Apricot Plum; this is a large fine plum, but 
Botmuch cultivated on account of its shy bearing. 

8. Drap d'Or; this plum is very much 
admired and is a general bearer, particularly 
against a wall ; it ripens late in September. 

9. Green Gage; this plum is too well known 
to require much being said of it ; it is decidedly 
the finest plum in cultivation ; it ripens late in 
August. 

10. Blue Imperatrice ; this is one of the best 
late plums we have ; it is best adapted for the 
wall, and when perfectly ripe, there is no plum 
of its season equal to it for sweetness ; it ripens 
in October, and I have eaten fine ones from the 
trees in the middle of November. 

F3 



106 PLUMS. 

11. Brignole ; this plumb when thoroughly 
ripe is like a sweetmeat, but it is not a very 
good bearer it ripens in September. 

12. Saint Catharine; this is a good plum and 
is a good bearer; it is ripe in September, and 
will hang a long time on the tree. 

13. Winesour; this plum is much esteemed 
for preserving ; it is a late plum, and is a good 
bearer. 

14. La Mirabelle; this is a handsome small 
yellow plum, very full of juice ; it is ripe about 
the middle of September and is a good bearer. 

15. Coe's Golden Drop ; this plum is of a 
fine amber colour, much in the form of the white 
egg plum, and of about half the size ; they bear 
well as standards or against the wall, and when 
ripe, the flavour is very fine, and certainly the 
most beautiful plum for the dessert of its sea- 
son ; it ripens towards the end of September. 

16. Kirke's fine Red t^lam; this plum, which 
comes in just after the Orleans T is large, fine 
flavoured, and is a good bearer ; it deserves 
to be brought into general cultivation. 



LIST OF PLUMS. J07 

17. Street's Plum, or St. Lowe; this plum,, 
which is a great bearer, exceeds all I ever saw 
for size ; it is much in the form of the Orleans, 
but considerably larger and very handsome ; it 
is of a red colour, and generally carries a good 
bloom on the fruit ; they bear well as stand- 
ards, or against the wall ; it ripens about Sep- 
tember. 

18. Blue Gage; this is a most excellent 
plum for the wall, the flavour is very fine, and 
it is generally a good bearer. 

19. Early Orleans; this is rather earlier 
than the old Orleans plum ; it is a good bearer, 
and the fruit is very much admired. 

20. Yellow Orleans ; this is a beautiful trans- 
parent plum, nearly as large as the old Orleans, 
good flavoured, and very handsome for the des- 
sert ; it will bear well as a standard ; it ripens 
about September. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PLUMS. 

Those marked with an Asterisk (*) are described in the explanatory 

List. 

Par. 113.- 

Admirable Avone 

*Apricot Plum *Blue Perdigron 



108 



CHERRIES, 



*Brignole 
*Blue Gage 
*Blue Imperatrice 
Blue Matchless 

* Catharine 

*Coe's Golden Drop 
*Drap D'Or 

Early Amber 
*Fotheringham 

Goliah 

* Green Gage 
Gross Mirabelle 
Jaune Hative 

*Kirke's large Red 

Kirke's fine new American 
*La Mirabelle 
*La Royale 
*Magnum Bonum White 

* Magnum Bonum Red 
Mirabelle 
Morocco 



*Orleans Red 
* Early 

New Early 

* Yellow 

Precos De Tours 

Pruin 

Queen Mother 

Reain Claude Violet 

Red Diaper 

Royal Dauphin 
* Street's Large Red 

Sharp's Emperor 

S toneless 

Violet 

White Bullace 

White Damson 

White Imperatrice 

White Pear 

White Perdigron 
*Wine Sour 

Yellow Gage 



CHERRIES. 

Par. 114. The culture of cherries in this 
country being rather large, and profitable to 
grow, it is necessary to make a few observations 
on the constitution of this tree. 

There is no fruit tree I know of more subject 
to gum than the cherry, which is frequently 



CHERRIES. 109 

caused by the land, particularly if the bottom 
is strong clay; the most essential point to be 
observed in planting orchards of this fruit, is to 
select those trees which have been budded 
standard high, for those budded within a few 
inches of the ground, and trained up for -stan- 
dards, are very liable to sink below the bud, 
which is almost sure to cause the tree to decay 
early. 

Likewise, this should always be observed in 
planting of dwarf trained cherries, to keep the 
bud or graft a few inches above the surface of 
the earth ; for if cherries once begin to gum* 
they seldom recover. I have given a description 
of some of the best sorts, which will be found 
in the explanatory list. 

There is no stock so durable for budding 
and grafting cherries on as the small wild 
black cherry, the seed of which should always 
be selected for that purpose. 

EXPLANATORY LIST OF CHERRIES. 

Par. 115. I. May-duke; this cherry which 
ripens early in June against a south wall, is one 
of the best cherries in cultivation : they are 
great bearers as standards, and the flavour is 
very fine. 



110 CHERRIES. 

2. Ronald's Black heart or Circassian ; this 
is a fine large black cherry and good bearer; 
it would deserve general cultivation, but the 
wood in some soils is very apt to decay; it 
ripens early in July. 

3. Black heart ; this is a well known good 
fruit, handsome, and a good bearer. 



4. Arch-duke ; this is an exceeding fine 
cherry, larger than the may-duke, and a good 
bearer; it is not properly in perfection till 
July. This is a valuable cherry to grow for 
the market. 



5. Morella; this cherry is one of the greatest 
bearers, either as standards, or against a wall, 
we have in cultivation; it is large and hand- 
some, and in the month of October is nearly 
black, at this season it is a great addition to 
the dessert ; it is also fine for tarts and j>re- 
serving, and by far the best for putting in 
brandy. 

6. Bleeding Heart; this is a very fine fruit, 
is ripe about the middle of July, but it is not a 
general bearer. 

7. Harrison's Heart ; this by many persons is 



CHERRIES. Ill 

considered a very fine cherry ; it comes in late 
for the dessert, being ripe in August. 

8. Black Coroon ; this is a very fine cherry, 
and generally is a good bearer ; it ripens in July 
and August. 

9. Biggerow ; this is a very fine cherry, and is 
a great ornament to the dessert in July ; they 
will do well as standards, but the fruit will 
come finer against a west wall . 

10. Kentish; the wood of this cherry very 
much resembles the wood of the Morella, and 
is one of the best to plant for orchards, the con- 
stitution of the tree being strong, and the de- 
mand for the fruit great, being consumed in 
large quantities for kitchen purposes ; it like- 
wise very much resembles the Flemish, for 
which it is a good substitute, being a better 
cherry and a better bearer. 

1 1 . Florence ; this is a most beautiful cherry 
for the dessert, and will bear well as standards, 
but the fruit will grow larger against the wall,, 
the flavour is excellent. 

12. Waterloo; this cherry is one of the 
fine productions of Mr. Knight; it is a very 



112 



LIST OF CHERRIES. 



fine sweet flavoured fruit, and tolerably pro- 
ductive. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF CHERRIES. 

Those marked with an Asterisk (*) are described in the explanatory 

List. 

Par. 116. 

Adam's Crown 
Anfoer Heart 

* Arch-duke 
*Biggerow 
*Black Coroon 

Black Eagle 
*Black Heart 
Black Tartarian 

* Bleeding Heart 
Carnation 
Churchill's Heart 
Double Blossom 
Early May 
Elton 

Flemish 
*Florence 

- 

Graffion 
Harrison's Heart 



Holman's late Duke 

* Kentish 
Kensington Duke 
Knight's new Black 
Lady Southampton's 

Duke 
*May-duke 

Montmorencie 
*Morella 

Ox Heart 

* Ronald's Black Heart or 

Circassian 
Waterloo 
Weeping 

Wentworth Heart 
White Heart 

M 

White Tartarian 



APRICOTS. 

Par. 117. Various have been the opinions 

respecting the stocks generally used for 

budding apricots, as they will grow on the 

fv*7>, muscle, the Brussels, and the common plum 



~-< *"*"**** 



*f~r~rj&*^', Af4-?j 



LIST OF APRICOTS. 113 

stock ; but it is a general opinion (and not with- 
out foundation) that those budded on the 
Brussels stock are more liable to decay. 

Having tried the whole of the above stocks 
for years past, I find none so well suited for 
Apricots as the common plum stock, usually 
called commoners, except the Royal Orange, 
which does best on the muscle ; there maybe many 
who will not agree with my recommending the 
common plum before the muscle, for the Moor 
Park, but I give it the decided preference. 

EXPLANATORY LIST OF APRICOTS. 

Par. 118. Moor Park; this apricot is con- 
sidered decidedly the best in cultivation ; 
it is a very great bearer, the fruit is very fine, 
and deserves to be recommended before any 
other ; it ripens about the middle of August. 

I have seen the Moor Park bear well a* 
standards in the open ground. 

2. Peach Apricot; this is a fine large apricot, 
very, much like the Moor Park, and ripens 
about the same time. 

3. Turkey ; this is a tolerably good apricot, 



LIST OF APRICOTS. 

of rather a deep colour, but not very full of 
juice, it ripens late in August. 

4. Red Masculine ; this should always be 
planted 'amongst a collection, for it comes in 
earlier than most other sorts ; it is a small fruit, 
red towards the sun when ripe, and is esteemed 
for being ready before other sorts, it ripens 
in July. 

5. Algiers ; this is a yellow apricot, of 
rather a flat shape, and good flavour ; it ripens 
in August. 



6. Small Orange Apricot; this is a 
bearer, and is grown principally for preserving, 
and tarts. 

7. Royal Orange ; this is a fine apricot of a 
yellow colour, it is ripe in August. 

8. Roman ; this is a large yellow apricot of a 
good flavour, it is ripe about the middle of 
August. 



; *Breda ; this is an excellent apricot, large, 
of a yellow colour, full of fine flavoured juice, 
and is a good bearer, ripe about the end 



LIST OF APRICOTS. 117 

of August: it may be planted as an open 
standard. 

17. Brussels; this is rather a small apricot, 
but is a very great bearer, and is generally 
preferred for planting as standards, in the open 
ground ; it is of a red colour towards the sur^ 
and looks very handsome on the trees ; it has 
a tart flavour which is generally admired when 
grown on the open standards, it is ripe in 
September. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF APRICOTS. 

Those marked with an Asterisk (*) are described in the explanatory 

List. 
Par. -119. 

Alberge Persian 

*Algiers Portugal 

Black Provence 

*Breda *lled Masculine 

*Brussels * Roman 

Dutch * Royal Orange 

Gold Blotched Leaved Temple 

Graver's Breda Transparent 

*Moor Park *Turkey 

*0range White Masculine 
*Peach 

PEACHES AND NECTARINES. 

Par. 120. Peaches and Nectarines being so 
much alike in nature and cultivation, what is 
said of one will equally apply to the other ; 



116 PEACHES AND NECTARINES. 

it appears from the best authorities, that the 
almond was the original parent of the above 
fruits, and they grow freely budded on the 
almond stock, but they are far more durable 
when budded on the plum. To enter here into 
a detail of the different peaches and nectarines 
which grow best on the different sorts of plums, 
would be wholly unnecessary, as I do not 
consider myself as writing complete and full 
instructions to render every one of my readers 
competent to fill the arduous labours of a nur- 
seryman, and to particularize each would rather 
tend to confuse than inform ; suffice it to say, 
that neither peach or nectarine will succeed on 
the Brussels Stock, and the stocks generally 
used for peaches and nectarines which they 
like most are the Muscle and Pear plums. 

It often occurs, that peaches and nectarines 
swell too large for the stock they are budded on ; 
this plainly denotes the stock is not suited to 
the constitution of that variety ; and this the 
nurserymen in the neighbourhood of London 
have made their study, and have brought it to 
that perfection, as to give them a decided supe- 
riority over most of their country contempora- 
ries, who, generally speaking, have not suffi- 
cient practice in this department ; indeed it is 
no small matter of consideration, for it is not 



LIST OF PEACHES. 117 

only the sum paid for the trees, but the morti- 
fication (which can only be known to those 
who have experienced it) after having planted 
the trees a few years, of seeing them diseased 
and gradually dwindling away. Peaches will 
grow by grafting, but they never do well, being 
sure to gum, and get diseased where the scion 
is put on the stock. In the explanatory list 
will be found a description of the best sorts, 
with their seasons for ripening, &c. 

EXPLANATORY LIST OF PEACHES. 

Par. 121 Noblesse ; this peach is large and 
handsome, of a red colour where they are ex- 
posed to the sun ; it is a fine melter, and very full 
of rich juice ; it is a good bearer, and ripens 
early in September. 

2. Montauban ; this is a fine melting peach, 
and full of juice, of a deep red towards the sun ; 
it is agood bearer, and ripens earlyin September. 

3. Vanguard; this peach is in every respect 
so much like the Noblesse that many persons 
think it the same, but it is not ; the tree is 
rather of stronger growth, and the fruit some- 
thing larger ; there is but little difference in 
their time for getting ripe. 



118 LIST OF PEACHES. 

4. Red Nutmeg ; this is a small peach of a 
deep red colour, and a good bearer ; it ripens 
early in August, for which it is much esteemed. 

5. Early Ann ; this peach is admired for 
being early ; it is a good peach, and ripens 
about the middle of August. 

6. Royal George ; this is a fine old peach, of 
a high colour next to the sun ; it is full of fine 
sweet juice, a good bearer, and ripens early. 

7. French Mignonne; this is a large beautiful 
peach of a red colour, a fine melter, and full of 
sweet juice ; it is a good bearer, and ripens late 
in August 

8. Royal Kensington; this is a very fine 
peach, and considered by many persons to be 
the same as the French Mignonne ; some trees 
being sent from France as a present to her Ma- 
jesty, Queen Charlotte, it was called the Royal 
Kensington. 

9. Bourdine; this is a fine melting peach, of 
a red colour next to the sun ; it is a great 
bearer, and ripens about the end of Septem- 
ber. 



LIST OF PEACHES. 119 

10. Red Magdalen ; this is a large beautiful 
peach, of a deep red colour, full of fine rich 
juice, and ripens early in September. I have 
seen this peach bear plentifully on standards 
in the open ground. 

X 

1 1 . Chancellor ; this is a fine old peach, with 
melting flesh, full of rich juice, and very hand- 
some ; it ripens early in September. 

12. Rosanna ; this is one of the greatest 
bearers in cultivation; it is of a deep purple 
next the sun, and is considered a good peach ; 
it will bear _well as a standard in the open 
ground ; it ripens in September. 

i 

13. Early Gallande ; this peach is highly 
esteemed, and is certainly one of the best 
peaches we have ; it is a great bearer, very 
handsome, and ripens early in September. 

14. La Teton de Venus ; this is a fine rich 
peach, rather a long form, of a pale red, and 
ripens late in September. 

15. Early Admirable; this is a large fine 
peach, of a beautiful red colour next the sun ; 
it is full of fine sweet juice, and ripens early 
in September. 



120 LIST OF PEACHES. 

16. Monstrous Pavie of Pompone; this is 
called by our market gardeners a Cling-stone 
Peach, but the French call all Pavies which do 
not come clean from the stone ; it is cultiva- 
ted more for its size and beauty, than its excel- 
lence ; it ripens about the middle of October. 

17. Grimwood's Royal George; this is a 
very fine melting peach, a great bearer, and 
ripens late in August. 

18. Catharine; this is a late good peach, but 
will adhere to the stone; it is of a fine red 
colour towards the sun, is rich, and full of 
juice ; it ripens late in October. 

19. Late Admirable ; this is a very fine melt- 
ing peach, handsome, full of juice, and ripens 
late in September. 

20. Old Newington; this peach is handsome, 
and of a deep red towards the sun ; it is tole- 
rably full of juice, but it will adhere to the 
stone ; it ripens about the end of September. 

21. Double Swalsh ; this is a very fine melt- 
ing peach, is ripe early in September. 

22. Smooth leaved Royal George; this is 



LIST OF PEACHES. 121 

most excellent peach, full of fine rich juice, 
handsome, and one of the greatest bearers we 
have, it is ripe early in September. 

23. Violet Hative ; this is a fine high coloured 
peach, melting flesh, with an abundance of rich 
juice; it is a good bearer, and ripens late in 
August. 

24. Millet's Mignion ; this is a very fine large 
melting peach, and excellent for forcing, it 
not being so subject to mildew as some sorts ; it 
is a good bearer, is ripe early in September. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF PEACHES. 

Those marked with an Asterisk (*) are described in the explanatory 

List. 

Par. 122.- 

Acton Scot Downton 

Belgarde *Early Admirable 

Bell Chevreux * Ann 

*Bourdine Avant 

Braddick's Purple Avant 

BuckinghamshireMignion * Gallande 

Catharine Purple 

* Chancellor Newington 

Double Blossom *French Mignion 

* Swalsh *GrimwoocTs Royal George 

Montagne Gross Mignion 

G 



122 LIST OF NECTARINES, 

f Incomparable *Nutmeg Red 

Java White 

*Late Admirable *Red Magdalen 

Late Gallande *Rosanna 

fLa Teton D 1 Venus * Royal Kensington 

Lome's Large Melter *Royal George 

*Millet <l s Mignion * Smooth Leaved Royal 
*Monstrous Pavie of Pom- George 

pone ^Vanguard 

^Montauban * Violet Hative 

*Newington White Magdalen 

Nivette Yellow Alberge 

*Noblesse 



EXPLANATORY LIST OF NECTARINES. 

Par. 123. 1. Elruge ; this is one of the finest 
nectarines we have ; it is of a good size, and a 
great bearer ; the colour is a dark red towards 
the sun, and a yellowish green next the wall ; 
the flesh is fine and melting, and full of sweet 
juice ; it ripens late in August : it is also a fine 
nectarine for forcing. 

% 

2. Newington; this is a very good nectarine, 
and a great bearer, of a fine red colour, it ad- 
heres to the stone, but is full of fine sweet 
juice ; it ripens early in September. 

3. Red Roman ; this is an old well known 
good nectarine, of a deep red or purple next 



LIST OF NECTARINES. 123 

the sun, and rather yellow on the wall side ; it is 
a good bearer, and ripens early in September. 

4. Brugnion ; this is a good nectarine, of a 
deep red towards the sun, and a pale yellow 
next to the wall ; it is fine eating when full ripe 
from the tree, but soon loses its flavour after 
\t is gathered ; it ripens late in August. 

5. Murrey ; this is a very fine nectarine, of 
a purple colour towards the sun, large, a good 
bearer, full of fine sweet juice, and may be 
considered one of the best ; it ripens early in 
September. 

6. Golden or T emple Nectarine ; this is 
handsome, of a light red towards the sun, and 
yellow on the wall side ; it has plenty of juice* 
and is generally admired ; it ripens late in 
September. 

7. Violet Hative ; this is a most excellent 
nectarine, of a deep red towards the sun; it is 
a fine rich melting fruit, full of sweet juice, 
and a good bearer ; it ripens late in 'August. 

8. Fairchild's Early; this is a small early 
, nectarine, of a fine red colour, the flesh is melt- 

G 2 



124 GRAPE VINES. 

ing and full of fine juice ; is ripe about the mid- 
dle of August. 

9. Vermash ; this is a fine late nectarine, of a 
green colour, a little inclined to red towards 
the sun ; it ripens late in September. 

10. Italian ; this is a fine large nectarine, of 
a deep red next the sun, full of rich juice, and 
is greatly admired ; it ripens early in Sep- 
tember. 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NECTARINES. 

Those marked with an Asterisk (*) are described in the explanatory 

List. 

Par. 124. 

Aromatic *! New White 

Brugnion Old White 

*Elruge Peterborough 

*Fairchild's Early *Roman 

Genoese St. Omers 

*Italian *Temple 

* Murrey * Violet Hative 

Newfoundland * Vermash 
*Newington 

GRAPE VINES. 

Par. 125c The principal part of this deli- 
cious fruit is grown in hot-houses and vineries, 
as our climate will not admit of their coming to 



GRAPE VINES. 125 

perfection in the open air, excepting a few 
sorts. Those will be found in the explanatory 
list which will suit the different situations best- 

I know of no grape for the open wall to 
equal the Royal Muscadine ; it seldom fails to 
ripen, is a great bearer, and a most excellent 
grape for the dessert ; it also makes very 
fine wine. 

EXPLANATORY LIST OF GRAPE VINES. 

Those marked with W. are for the Watt those V. are for the 
Vinery and those H. are for the Hothouse. 

Par. 126. 1. Royal Muscadine, by some 
called the Malmsey ; this is an excellent grape 
for the wall or vinery, the berries when ripe 
are of an amber colour, large, round, and very 
fine flavoured ; it is one of the best white grapes 
we have for the open wall, for it is a great 
bearer and seldom fails to ripen. W. V. H. 

2. Black Muscadine ; this is a great bearer, 
and will often ripen against the open wall ; the 
berries are handsome, having a very fine purple 
bloom. V. 

3. Black Damascus ; this is a very fine large 
black grape, full of rich juice, and highly 
esteemed. H. 



126 GRAPE VINES. 

4. White Muscat of Alexandria ; this grape 
is in high estimation for the hot-house, the 
berries are of a fine oval shape, the bunches 
long and large, and the flavour much admired. 
H. 

5. White Muscat ; this is a good bearer, with 
large berries of rather an amber colour. V. H. 

6. White Chasselas, called by some the 
White Muscadine ; this is a very good grape 
for the wall, the berries rather resemble the 
Royal Muscadine, but are not so large. W. 

7. Red Muscat ; this grape is red, with oval 
shaped berries. H. 

8. The Black Tripoli; this is a very fine 
black grape, with large berries, full of fine rich 
juice. H. 

9. Black Muscadel has rather a peculiar 
flavour, but is generally considered pleasant, 
the berries are black, of an oval shape, and 
large. H. 

10. Red Muscadel ; the bunches of this grape 
gro'w very large, and likewise the berries, which 
are red. T. 



GRAPE VINES. 127 

11. Black Alicant or Spanish; this is a tole- 
rably large sized black grape, and the flavour 
very generally admired. V. H* 

12. Black Frontinac; the berries of this 
grape are not very large, full of fine rich juice, 
and are greatly admired. V. H. 

13. White Frontinac; the berries of this 
grape are small and round, the bunches grow 
long and tolerably large ; the juice has a very 
peculiar flavour, but is, highly esteemed. W. 



14. Grizzly Frontinac ; this grape is rather 
of a brown red colour, very fine, and generally 
admired. V. H. 

15. Red Frontinac; the berries of this grape 
are rather large, of a dingy red colour ;* it is 
considered a very fine grape. V. H. 

16. Black Hamburgh ; this grape, for the 
hothouse or vinery, cannot be excelled; the 
berries are large, round, and handsome, and 
the bunches well formed : it is a great bearer, 
and of excellent flavour. V. H. 

17. Red Hamburgh ; this is a tolerably good 



GRAPE VINES. 

grape, the berries are of a dark red colour. 
V. H. 

18. White Sweet Water; the flavour of this 
grape is most excellent, the berries are of a 
tolerable size, but. the bunches do not grow 
handsomely. W. V. H. 

19- New White Sweet Water; this is a most 
excellent grape, a great bearer, and the bunches 
not so irregular as the former. W. V. H. 

20. Black Sweet Water; this grape has a 
small sweet berry which is very liable to crack, 
consequently against the open wall is much 
destroyed by birds and flies; it is an early 
grape. W. V. 

21. Black Cluster; this is a small black 
grape, a great bearer, and covered when ripe 
with a fine bloom. W. 

22. White Raisin; the berries of this grape 
are very large, with a thick skin, the bunches 
also grow very large and handsome. H. 

23. Claret; this grape has small blackber- 
ries, with red juice ; it is not an agreeable fruit 
to eat, but makes excellent wine. V. H. 



GRAPE VINES. 129 

24. Lombardy; this is a large red grape, 
the bunches grow very large and are full of 
rich juice. V. H. 

25. St. Peter's ; this grape is very black 
when ripe, the berries are large, of an oval 
shape, and the bunches very large ; it is a good 
grape. V. H. 

26. West's St. Peter's ; this is a fine black 
grape, now in high estimation, the bunches 
come fine, the berries large, and flavour excel- 
lent. V. H. 

%7. Sir Abraham Pitcher's ; this is a large 
fine black grape, and greatly admired. V. H. 

28. Black Prince; this is one of the best black 
grapes for the natural wall, as it seldom 
fails to ripen, the bunches grow large, par- 
cularly in the vinery, and the berries, which are 
tolerably large, are full of fine sweet juice ; it 
is now very much in request. W. V. H. 

29. White Tokay; this is a fine grape of very 
delicate appearance, but rather a bad bearer. V. 

30. Black Portugal ; the berries of this 
grape, are of a middling size, and in favourable 



130 



LIST OF GRAPE VINES. 



seasons will ripen against the natural wall ; it is 
a good grape. W. V. H. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF GRAPE VINES. 

Those marked with andsterisk(*)are described in the expla?ialory 

List. 

Par. 127.- 

Aleppo 
*Black Alicant 

Cluster 

* Damascus 

Esperion 

Frankendali 

* Frontinac or Mus- 
cat Noir 

Gibraltar 

* Hamburgh 

Lisbon 

Morillon 

Morocco 

* Muscadel 

Muscadine 

Muscat 

* Portugal 

* Prince 

* Sir Abm. Pitcher's 

* St. Peter's 

* Sweet Water 

* Tripoli 

*Chasselas 



*Claret 

* Grizzly Frontinac 
Golden Galacian 

*Lombardy 

Malmsey 

Miller's Burgundy 

Malvoise or Blue Tokay 

Muscat of Alexandria 

Muscatelle 

*New White Sweet Water 
*Red Frontinac or Muscat 
Rouge 

Constant! a 

* Hamburgh 

* Muscadel 
* Muscat 

Raisin 

Smyrna 

Muscat of Alexandria 

Muscat of Jerusalem 

Syracuse 

*Royal Muscadine 

* West's St. Peter's 



LIST OF FIGS. 131 

*White Sweet Water White Muscat of Lunel 

* Frontinac Cornichon 

* Muscat of Alex- Hamburgh 

andria Olcobaca 

Nice Morillon 

Parsley Leaved Muscat 

* Raisin * Teneriffe 

Syrian * Tokay 

EXPLANATORY LIST OF FIGS. 

Par. 128. Yellow Ischia, is a large fine 
flavoured fruit with a yellow skin and deep red 
flesh ; it is ripe about the middle of October. 

2. Brown Naples Fig ; this fruit is long, of a 
brown colour, well flavoured, and is a good 
bearer; it ripens early in October. In good 
seasons this fig will ripen well on standards. 

3. Green Ischia; this has a thin green skin 
with a brown cast ; when ripe the inside is a 
deep red inclining to purple ; it is a good fig 
and ripens late in September. 

4. Malta; this is a fine flavoured, small 
brown fig ; the wood is rather tender, but if 
the wood ripens well, it is generally a good 
bearer ; it ripens early in September. 

5. Black Ischia ; this fig is one of the great- 



132 LIST OF FIGS. 

est bearers we have ; the fruit when ripe is 
nearly black, of a small size but finely flavoured; 
it is good for forcing, wall or standards, and 
ripens early. 

6. Large White Genoa ; this is a large fig, 
with a thin skin of pale yellow ; it is a fine fruit, 
good bearer, and ripens late in August or 
beginning of September; it is a good fig for 
forcing. 

7. Black Genoa ; this is along dark fig, quite 
red inside, is fine flavoured, and ripens early. 

8. Small White Fig; this is a small pale 
yellow fruit, of very good flavour, a great 
bearer, and will do well as standards ; it ripens 
early. 

9. Large Brown Ischia ; this fig grows very 
large, it is brown outside, and purple within, 
is fine flavoured, and will often produce two 
crops in the year ; it ripens early. 

10. Black Italian; this is a small fig of a 
very fine flavour ; it is one of the best for grow- 
ing in pots, being a very great bearer. 



CHESTNUTS, BARBERRIES, &C. J33 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF FIGS. 

Those marked with an Asterisk (*) are described in the explanatory 

List. 

Par. 129. 

* Black Genoa Madona 

* Ischie * Maltese 

* Italian Murrey 

Blue Ischie *Small Early White 

Brown Ischie Turkey Large Black 

* Naples * White Genoa 

Common Blue *Yellow Ischie 

* Green Ischie 

CHESTNUTS. 

Par. 130. 

Golden Striped Spanish 

Silver Striped Virginian 

BARBERRIES. 

Par. 131. 

Black Sweet 

Common Red with Stones 

Red without Stones 

QUINCES. 

Par. 132. 

Apple Quince 

Oblong 

Portugal 



134 WALNUTS, RASPBERRIES, &C. 

WALNUTS. 

Par. 133. 

Black Virginian or French Walnut 

Hickery; Large Walnut 

Cob Walnut Small Walnut 

Double Walnut 

FILBERTS AND HAZLE NUTS. 

Par. 134. 

Barcelona, or Spanish Nut Cosford Nut 
Cluster Wood Nut Dwarf Prolific Nut 

Cob Nut Red filbert 

Common Wood Nut White Filbert 

RASPBERRIES. 

Par. 135. 

Double-bearing Red Large Red 

White Red Antwerp 

Early White Smooth Cane 

STRAWBERRIES. 

Par. 136.- 

Alphine Mathevin Castle 

Bath Scarlet New Hautboy 

Carolina Pine Apple 

Chili Roseberry 

Downton Scarlet 

Keen's Imperial Suranam 

New Seedling Wilmot's Scarlet 

Knight's Seedling ' Wood Strawberry 



GOOSEBERRIES. J35 

CURRANTS. 

Par. 137. 

Black American Long Bunched Red 

Common Red Common 

Large Pale Red Cham- White Common 

paigne Dutch 

COMMON GOOSEBERRIES IN THIS COUNTRY. 

Par. 138.- 

Champaigne Large Smooth Dutch Yel- 

Common White low 

Early Black Smooth Yellow 

Green Gascoin' Small Early Red 

Hairy and Smooth Red Smooth Green 
Large Rough Yellow 

RED GOOSEBERRIES. 

Alcock's King Fox's Jolly Smoker 

Boardman's Royal Oak Hall's Porcupine 

Brundret's Atlas Lomax Victory 

Chapman's Peerless Mason's Hercules 

Dean's Glory of England Taylor's Volunteer 

Duke of York Warrington 

Farlow's Lord Hood Worthington's Glory of 
Fisher's Conqueror Eccles 

GREEN GOOSEBERRIES. 

Chadwick's Hero Royal Green Gage 

Dean's Lord Hood Smith's Mask 

Mill's Langley Green Yeates's Duke of Bedford 
Reid's Satisfaction 



136 



GOOSEBERRIES. 



WHITE GOOSEBERRIES. 

Atkinson's White Hall 
Chapman's Highland 

White 
Davenport's Lady 



Gibson's Apollo 
Kenyon's Noble 
Woodward's Whitesmith 



COLLECTION OF VERY FINE SORTS OF GOOSE- 
BERRIES. 



Ackerley's Double Bearer 
Costerdina Goliah 
Golden Drop 
Goliah Champion 
Hampson's bearer 
High Sheriff 
Jackson's Golden Orange 
Layford's Seedling 
Monk's Charles Fox 



Nixon's Golden Eagle 
Bidding's Old England 
Royal George 
Royden's Triumph 
Rumbulion 
Sparkler 
Supreme Red 
White Walnut 
Worthington's Lilly 



APPENDIX. 



Observations on Horticulture generally. 

HAVING given a description of all the best 
fruits in general cultivation in this country, 
I shall now hazard a few remarks on horticul- 
ture generally. 

The generality of practical horticulturalists 
have been inclined to despise the theorist, but 
since the study has now become not only a 
fashionable but a profitable source of amuse- 
ment, it has led many scientific theorists to 
furnish the practical man with much useful 
information, which the latter has been able to 
improve on, and from experiments and prac- 
tice, placed England on a level, and, I may add, 
in a superior situation to all Foreign coun- 



138 



APPENDIX. 



tries in this respect. The little knowledge I 
possess on this subject, as well as gardening 
in general, is certainly mainly attributable to 
the study of different works which have ap- 
peared on these subjects ; but because .their 
authors may not have understood practically 
what they treated of, is no reason why I should 
be the less sensible of the obligations I am 
under to them. Yet, it may be said, these 
works are mostly produced from ancient wri- 
tings, as the substance of most of them was 
known and treated of by our forefathers : but 
ought this to be allowed to depreciate the 
merit of their labours ? Would the practical 
man, I would ask, give himself the trouble to 
search after these ancient works, did he know 
of their existence, putting out of the question 
the expense he would be at, (as most books after 
a certain date, become scarce, and are then 
much enhanced in value,) and would he, when 
their attainment was accomplished, find himself 
competent to suggest the improvements made 
by most modern authors? I will (speaking 
collectively) fearlessly answer with regard to 
the first, he would not be at the trouble ; and 
with the second, he would be fully sensible of 
the wide difference between imaginary and 
actual powers of improving. Thus might we 
proceed in the jog trot pace of antiquity, were 



APPENDIX. 139 

it not for the intelligence and encouragement 
of modern times. 

One thing we have much cause to lament, 
which is, the premature decay of some of our 
most ornamental, and useful timber trees* 
particularly the elm, which is caused by a 
most destructive insect : the tree is first mal- 
treated by bruises on the bark, or otherwise 
injured, then follows this destructive insect, 
which in one of its stages eats into the tree and 
rapidly consumes it ; these serious appearances 
are to be discerned extensively in St. James's 
Park and many other places. I would here 
hazard an opinion, from having made it my 
study for many years ; but as the cause may 
only have been an oversight in those who have 
the care of them, it might appear officious and 
misplaced in a work of this nature. 

Nevertheless, although I shall pass this, I 
cannot avoid making a few observations on the 
oak ; and the more especially as it is a tree 
(as my most inexperienced readers must know) 
which supplies us with the material best suited 
to our most important national purposes. Un- 
less we use our utmost exertions to ensure a 
plentiful supply of this invaluable timber, our 
posterity will run the risk of losing the cele- 



140 APPENDIX. 

brity we have so long maintained for our 
wooden walls defence : but this will never be 
the case, if the system of transplanting oaks 
is abandoned ; if pollard oaks are desirable, 
transplant your trees, but if you wish for fine 
timber, let your trees remain where your acorns 
were sown, as no tree feels the injury of cut- 
ting the root like the oak. 

I have known the acorn which was sown 
in spring make a straight root of upwards of 
a yard long by the following autumn, although 
not grown more than one foot out of the 
ground ; and while this root is allowed to take 
the lead, so long will the tree keep a leader 
and grow straight ; but when the main root of 
the oak is cut, it will be all chance about its 
making another leading root ; but, while it re- 
mains uncut, although it may meet with stones 
or other obstructions, it will find its way and 
still keep the lead ; indeed I am fully persuaded 
if an oak tree ten years old were planted, 
and an acorn planted by it -in the same soil, in 
ten years the tree produced from the acorn 
would be the tallest, provided the other had 
been transplanted; be it understood, that this 
is a fact well known by many practical men : 
I therefore have mentioned it for the information 
of those who are unacquainted with the subject. 



APPENDIX. 141 

The American oak is very different to the 
English ; this tree is very ornamental and fast 
in its growth, and will do well from being 
transplanted ; I have known them, in this 
country, grow upwards of six feet in one 
season ; but the wood, from its free growth, is 
naturally porous, and more used in this country 
for purposes where soft grained wood is neces- 
sary, than for its durability ; and as English 
oak is known not to flourish in any country like 
England, as long as we keep a good supply of 
that valuable timber we may always ensure 
to ourselves the strongest maritime power in 
the world. 

Although I have passed over the elms with- 
out entering deeply into the cause of the 
decay of this valuable tree, I must say, I hope 
they will not share the same fate the acacias 
did, many years back : the common acacia, of 
which I am speaking, is a native of America, 
where it is now grown in large quantities, and 
equal in durability to any timber which that 
quarter of the globe produces. I find, from good 
authority, at the firstplanting of the royal gardens 
in St. James's Park, a great number of them 
were planted by Mr. Mollett, who then had 
the laying out of the grounds ; but, when the 
trees grew large, the wood being naturally 



142 APPENDIX. 

very brittle while in a growing state, the strong 
west winds, (which this climate is very subject 
to in summer,) were in the habit of breaking 
the limbs, which so disfigured the trees as to 
render it necessary for the beauty of the Park 
to remove them ; and although at that time it is 
said they were getting into general cultivation, 
the destroying the above-mentioned trees was 
fatal to the general cultivation by the whole 
country. Notwithstanding this tree, from its 
beautifully formed leaves, which affords a good 
shade, the flowers a sweet smell, and the tree 
itself a very fine timber, has never recovered 
the unfavourable impression it received at the 
above period ; and I have no doubt if such an 
example were to be set with the elms, it would 
be followed by similar effects in the country, 
and deter landowners from planting in the 
general manner they have been accustomed to 
do, and therefore as the disease can be reme- 
died, it ought not to be passed by unnoticed ; 
particularly by those who have the care of his 
Majesty's woods and forests. 

I shall now, previous' to drawing to a con- 
clusion, make a few additional remarks on fruit 
trees. Among the different diseases and the 
causes of those diseases, I find the pear-trees 
are subject to a very destructive insect; par- 



APPENDIX. 143 

ticularly the Green Chisel Pear; this insect 
1 have not known many years, neither can 
I at present give any account of its origin. 
The insects appear to lay their eggs in the 
cracks and cavities of the bark, where they* 
hatch, and while in quite a young state, they 
are a small slender maggot of a whitish yellow 
colour ; as they grow they eat into the body of 
the tree, and when they get to their full size, 
I have seen them full two inches and a half 
long, and proportionably stout, of a red colour 
and shining black head, out of which it sends 
two small claws like a pair of nippers, which 
they make use of to eat into the tree. I have 
seen large trees, at least three feet in circum- 
ference in the stem, completely killed by them : 
T last winter took out one of them of the 
largest size, from a Green Chisel Pear tree, 
belonging to Mr. Street, of Old Brompton; 
this was taken from a large limb, where the 
insect had scooped out all the centre near the 
stem, which caused the wind to blow it off, 
and in the hollow, where it had been living, 
was at least two quarts of saw-dust, which the 
insect had buried itself in. 

Should this insect become numerous, and an 
effectual remedy not be discovered, the devas- 
tation which it may be expected to make, will 



144 APPENDIX. 

be of no trifling description ; however, I hope 
and trust a remedy will be discovered. Mr. 
Street, from having become satisfied by re- 
peated trials that the Chelsea Apple Powder 
greatly encourages, rather than retards the 
growth of fruit trees, has made use of it on 
this occasion, and seems more and more satis- 
fied of its having the desired effect : however, 
as its principal object is intended for the pre- 
servation of the Apple trees, its further uses 
must be left for the public to discover. Thus far 
I can say, powerful as it is in its operation on 
insects, it will not injure the most tender plant; 
but to recommend it for various purposes, 
might lead it from the main object, therefore 
for the present I wish to confine it to the pre- 
servation of the apples. 

A person who has made insects his study, 
through their various changes, must be lost in 
astonishment, when they contemplate the won- 
derful sagacity Providence has endowed them 
with; who has taught the butterfly or moth, 
to select the different vegetables or trees, their 
young will thrive best on ; how do they know 
their young will become caterpillars, and not be 
able to fly about for food like themselves ? yet 
nature has so ordered it, that these destructive 
vermin may be provided for : even the large 



APPENDIX. 145 

fly, which is so fond of getting to meat in sum- 
mer ; it is not that she goes there for her own 
food, but mainly for the food of her offspring, 
seeming to know that if the meat will remain, 
it will afford plenty of food for the maggots 
which her eggs produce. 

I shall not here expatiate on insects, but 
conclude by making a few remarks on the 
planting of orchards. The first thing to con- 
sider when orchards are about to planted, 
is the soil which will best suit the different 
sorts of fruit ; if it is a fine deep loamy soil, 
all kinds of fruit trees will succeed on it ; but 
standard apples and pears will not do well on 
any other ; plums (although they like loam) 
will do well on a sandy or gravelly soil, pro- 
vided the gravel be not too near the surface ; 
cherries will likewise succeed on various soils, 
although they do best on a light loam. 

When an orchard is about being planted on 
a fertile piece of land, (particularly when it is 
intended for family use) the various expla- 
natory lists of fruits should be consulted, and 
a selection made therefrom (according to the 
size of the orchard) of all the different fruits* 
consisting of Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries, 
Medlars, Walnuts, Chesnuts, Damsons, Mul- 

H 



146 APPENDIX, 

berries and Quinces, the whole of which are 
useful in their seasons for the dessert and culi- 
nary purposes, although a few only of some 
of the sorts will be necessary, they ought to 
be planted to complete the orchard. 

It is an advisable plan to plant a row of 
Walnut trees on the North or North-east side 
of the orchard, as they will greatly break 
the winds from the bloom of the other trees ; for 
although the Walnut is much later than many 
fruits in producing its leaves, it greatly assists 
in protecting the neighbouring bloom from the 
East and North-east blasts, from which it 
generally suffers more than from any other 
cause, and the Walnut itself from being so late 
in the season before it is in bloom, it is less 
likely to suffer than most other fruits. 

Indeed if we could protect the Peaches and 
Nectarines while in bloom, we should have 
them as fine and plentiful in the open ground 
in this country as they are in America ; but 
the Peach and Nectarine producing its bloom 
before they put forth their leaves, the cold 
East wind, which we are almost invariably 
subject to in England, in the early part of the 
spring, is too sharp for the tender bloom, and 
consequently they seldom produce a crop, 



APPENDIX. 147 

except in sheltered situations. On the con- 
trary, in North America, although they are 
subject to very severe weather throughout the 
winter, when the frost breaks up and the spring 
commences, they generally have a continuance 
of fine mild weather, therefore the growth of 
this fruit has a preference ; indeed, they are in 
the habit of planting orchards of Peaches and 
Nectarines as common as we do Apples. 

Before 1 leave this subject, it will be neces- 
sary to speak of the increasing value land 
would be brought to by cultivating it with 
Apples- 

As one acre contains one hundred and sixty 
square rods, and each rod measures sixteen 
feet and a half square, if the trees were 
planted at a rod apart, it would of course take 
one hundred and sixty trees, or if they were 
planted wider, say one hundred to the acre : 
we have then to consider what would be the 
average profit arising from it. In the first place 
while the trees are in a young state, the injury 
will be so trifling to the under crops, for the 
first five or six years, as to be scarcely worthy 
of notice ; and by planting good Apples and sure 
bearers, in that time their produce would more 
than pay every expence of the purchase of the 

H 2 



148 APPENDIX. 

tiees and planting, and from that time the pro- 
fits would every year increase as the trees grew 
larger ; on the seventh year from planting, sup- 
pose you could only ensure one bushel from 
each tree, making one hundred bushels, (this 
Is putting it at the lowest calculation) and 
each bushel worth five shillings, this will 
amount to twenty-five pounds, and allowing 
every future year the fruit of each tree to 
increase in value only sixpence, from the 
increasing growth of the tree for twenty years, 
which by planting at that distance they would 
have sufficient room to do, it would make the 
produce of each tree worth fifteen shillings, 
and the gross produce of the acre worth 
seventy-five pounds per year independent of 
the meadow. 

In this statement it must be allowed I have 
stated the produce at the lowest, having allowed 
each tree at the age of twenty- seven years to 
produce only three 'bushels, and each bushel at 
five shillings ; some persons may say they have 
known Apples sold at eighteen pence and two 
shillings per bushel, but those were not such 
Apples as I have recommended ; I have 
known the Sykehouse Apple selling in Covent- 
garden market for twenty-five shillings per 



APPENDIX. 149 

bushel, when many inferior sorts have been 
selling at from three to five shillings ; there 
are many other sorts equally as valuable as the 
Sykehouse, which may be seen by consulting 
the explanatory list ; and as the demand for 
Apples is, and always will be very great, I 
know of no crop the land could produce that 
would tend to a more sure or greater source of 
profit. 



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